How to fix your Knee Valgus

Got weird looking knees?

Do they cave inwards?

… Or do you lack a thigh gap?

Yes?… Then you may have KNEE VALGUS!

This post will cover:

// What is Knee Valgus?

knee valgus

Knee Valgus is a condition where the knees cave inwards towards the mid line of the body.

It is also referred to as being “knock knee” (… or having “no thigh gap”).


// How to determine if you have Knee Valgus:

Stand up straight. Bring your legs together.

Look down.

If your knees are touching and there’s a large distance between your ankles, then you may have those knock knees!

Note: I do realise this is probably not the most accurate test… BUT – it does give you the general idea.


// Why you need to fix it

With Knee Valgus, you lose the optimal alignment of your whole leg.

As a result, there is a much higher risk of developing issues such as:

  • Arthritis
  • Ligament damage
  • Meniscal tears
  • Knee cap tracking problems
  • (… and a whole lot of other issues involving the lower back, hip and ankle!)

// Characteristics

  • Hip Internal rotation + Adduction
    • “Hip rolls/moves inwards”
  • Tibia external rotation
    • “Lower leg turns outwards”
  • Foot pronation
    • “Foot arch collapses”


// The Causes

a) Postural:

If you have an Anterior Pelvic tilt, this can cause your hip to internally rotate and cause your knees to cave in.

Click here to see if this is your issue.


b) Issues with the Hip/Knee/Ankle:

Essentially – if your ankle, knee and/or hip joints aren’t doing their job properly, it can most definitely lead to Knee Valgus.

I have addressed of all these areas in the exercise section below.


c) Structural:

The following factors can lead to physical changes to the actual knee bone/joint formation.

  • Genetics
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rickets
  • Scurvy

Unfortunately – there is no way we can undo these changes once they are established. 🙁

However… we can still improve your knee alignment (… as much as possible) with the right exercises. 🙂


// Avoid these positions!

a) ‘W’ sitting: 

This style of sitting is mainly seen in children. Don’t do it! (… Or don’t let your children do it)

b) Driving:

When driving, try to keep your knee and foot in the same alignment. Many people tend to have their knee facing the brake pedal and their foot on the accelerator.

c) Sitting with knees inwards:

Do you sit like this?… I know it probably looks better than sitting with a massive “leg spread”, but it’s not doing you any good if you have knee valgus.

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How to fix your Knee Valgus

Let’s break this section into 4 parts:

1. The Hip

The problem: Hip internal rotation + Adduction

(In other words… The hip joint turns and collapses inwards). This causes the  knee to collapse inwards.

// Releases:

We need to loosen up those tight muscles which are causing your Hip internal rotation and Adduction.

How to do a release:

  • Place the target area (see below) on top of a massage ball.
  • Apply your weight over the ball
  • Proceed to roll up/down/circle around the area.
  • Continue for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side.

a) Adductor

Release point:

  • Inner part of your thigh

b) TFL

Release point:


// Stretches:

Next step!

Now that you’ve smashed these muscles, it’s important that you follow it up with some stretching!

a) Adductor


  • Lunge to the side. (see above)
  • Aim to feel a deep stretch along the inside of the leg.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side.

b) TFL


  • Assume the forward lunge position. (see above)
  • Keep your feet in line with each other.
  • Proceed to lunge forward.
  • Lean your hips to the side whilst using your arm on a support to keep your balance.
  • Aim to feel a stretch in the front/outer side of your hip.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side,


// Joint mobilisation:

If your hip joint is stiff, it may be biased to stay in the rolled in position.

External rotation:


  • Sit on the floor with your back to the wall.
  • Place your feet together.
  • Sit as straight as possible.
  • Push your knees down.
  • Hold for 60 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.

// Strengthening

*** READ THIS ***: It is vital that you understand how to activate the muscles that are responsible for Hip abduction and External rotation. You will need to activate them during the exercises as shown in Step 4 (down below).

a) Clam shell (External rotation)


  • Lie on your side with your knees bent at 90 degrees.
  • Whilst keeping your ankles together, lift up your upper leg as high as possible
  • Make sure that you do not move your pelvis.
    • Don’t cheat! Only the leg should be moving.
  • Feel your External rotator muscles (aka your butt) activating.
  • Hold for 3-5 seconds at end range.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.

b) Wall slide (Abduction)


  • Lie on your side with your back 30cm from a wall.
  • Bend your bottom leg slightly as to support your body.
  • Plant your foot of the upper leg against the wall.
  • Apply a firm pressure on the wall through your heel.
  • Whilst maintaining this pressure, slide your upper leg up/down the wall.
  • Make sure you feel your Abductor muscles (aka your butt) activating.
  • Hold for 3-5 seconds at end range.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.


2. The Knee:

Image courtesy of jk1991 at


a) Releases of lateral hamstring

When the lateral hamstring (called your Biceps femoris) is tight, it causes external rotation of the lower bone (tibia). This causes the knee to cave in relative to the tibia.


  • Whilst sitting on the floor, place a massage ball underneath the outside part of the back of your knee. (see above)
  • Proceed to apply pressure through the ball.
  • Straighten and bend your knee.
  • Continue for 1 minute.
  • Repeat on other side.


b) Strengthening of the Quadriceps

Weak thigh muscles do not do a good job at controlling the alignment of the knee complex. This leaves the knee susceptible to Knee Valgus!


  • Lie down on your back.
  • Lock your knee by flattening it onto the floor.
  • Make sure you can feel your quadriceps muscles engaging.
  • Lift your locked leg up/down 30cm.
  • Repeat 30 times.


c) Strengthen the Popliteus

This muscle is responsible for aligning your knee joint complex.


  • Sit down with your hip/knees bent at 90 degrees.
  • Hold your knee straight with your hands.
  • Turn your lower leg inwards
    • (Internal rotation of the tibia bone)
  • Make sure your foot does not lift off the ground.
  • Repeat 30 times.
  • Repeat on other side.

3. The Ankle

Image courtesy of Flare at

The problem: If your ankle collapses inwards (pronation), it can cause your knee to roll inwards.


// Improving Dorsiflexion of the ankle

Having full range of motion in your ankle is essential in any form of leg movement (running, squatting, jumping, walking etc).

Without proper movement and flexibility, the ankle will likely over pronate (… which is a fancy way of saying that your foot arch collapses), and thus can cause the knees to cave inwards.

How much ankle flexibility should you aim for?

Ideally – Aim to get your toe roughly 8cm from the wall with your knee still in contact with the wall. (This may take some time if you are very tight in your ankle.)

a) Release the Calf muscle


  • Place your calf muscle on top of a foam roller/ball. (see above)
  • Put your other leg on top and apply pressure down towards the foam roller. (if required)
  • Roll your leg from side to side.
  • Make sure you cover the whole muscle
  • Do this for 1-2 minutes each side.


b) Stretch the Calf muscle


  • Place the top of your foot against a wall (see above)
  • Keep your heel planted on the floor.
  • Learn forward into your ankle.
  • Aim to feel a deep stretch sensation at the back of the calf.
  • Hold for 1-2 minutes.

c) Ankle joint mobilisation

The plunge exercise:


  • Assume a lunge position with your hands on a wall for support.
  • Using your body weight, proceed to plunge forward as to place pressure on the front ankle.
  • Keep the heels of your front leg in contact with the floor throughout movement.
  • Repeat 30 times.

// Improving the arch support:

a) Strengthen the arch

*** READ THIS ***: It is vital that you understand how to do the Short Foot exercise properly. It will be required to be activated during the exercises as shown in Step 4 (down below).

Short foot:


  • Sit down on a chair with your feet on the ground.
  • Whilst keeping your toes relaxed, proceed to scrunch the under-surface of your foot.
  • If performed correctly, you should be able to feel the muscles under your foot tense up.
  • Hold this for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Progress to a standing position once you understand how to do the exercise properly.

4. Combining it all together

This last part of this post is actually the most important!

Why?… It is where you will learn how to use your Hip, Knee and Ankle with each other to hold the ideal knee alignment.

Let’s go!

a) Wall push

  • Lift your hip to ~90 degrees and place the side of that leg against a wall. (see position above)
  • Activate short foot exercise on the foot that is planted on the floor. (see Short Foot exercise)
  • Bend your planted leg to ~15 degrees.
  • Try to put more of your weight on the heel of the foot.
    • This engages your hip muscles more and places less stress on your knee.
  • Push the lifted leg into the wall.
  • Hold this position for 5-10 seconds.
  • Repeat 5 times on alternate sides.

b) Step up

  • For this exercise you will need to use a step.
    • Start with a step ~10cm in height.
  • Place your leg onto the step.
  • Remember to engage your Short foot and Hip abductors
  • Step up and slowly lower yourself down.
    • Make sure that your knee and feet are aligned throughout the exercise.
  • Repeat 10-20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.


All done!

Say farewell to your Knee Valgus once and for all!

Any questions? Leave me a question down below in the comments section!


I am a physiotherapist who has personally experienced the pain as a result of bad posture. I would like to offer you some of the solutions that I and my patients have greatly benefited from.

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224 thoughts on “How to fix your Knee Valgus

  1. hloo i am 21 year old boy and my knees start bending i m having sweeling on my knee and when i movie it become voice of tick tok from the knees and found so pain in leg please help to correct this i m having so much pain my whtsapp number is +917707806683

  2. Good evening mark. I’m 16,does this exercises apply to me since I was told my knocked knees was genetic. My grandma has it.

    I also feel pain on my hips and waist.

    1. I’d say see how you go trying the exercises.

      If you are truly structural knocked knee, then it is unlikely the shape of your legs will change.

      However- if you just have weak/tight muscles and/or poor awareness of your legs, then you may see some good improvement with these exercises.

      Good luck!

  3. Hi Mark,
    Thank you for the article, it is amazing!
    My grandmother recently underwent TKR and was braced up for a month. When she bears weight on her right leg now, the knee goes in valgum. What are your thoughts about this?

    1. Hi Prachi,

      Likely a combination of weak foot/ankle, knee and hip muscles.

      She will benefit from strengthening of the same muscles as mentioned in the post.


  4. I have always been extremely embarrassed about my weird knock kneed legs. I walk and stand so weird, and I hate it. I thought I have finally found a solution, but these exercises did abesolutely nothing. Literally. No affect on my legs. The way I stand, walk, and run is still knock kneed and weird. I am so upset. I thought for once I could finally be normal.

    1. Hi Alexa,

      I have 3 suggestions:

      1. You may have Structural knock knees which can not be changed.

      2. You may require in-person assistance with the exercises to make sure you are performing them correctly.

      3. You need more time to allow for change. Think about how long you have had your knock knees, and now think about how long you have done the exercises for.

      All the best.


  5. Hello!
    I had ACL reconstruction and a meniscectomy 7 months. Now I’m suffering from inner ankle pain in my good leg! Could this be due to excessive strain and weight? I’ve starting practicing these exercises since my left leg (the one operated on) internally rotates. I appreciate you posting this information. Thank you!

    1. Hi Annina,

      Thanks for the comment.

      It is fairly common to get issues on the other side due to compensation.

      Best way to tackle this is to make sure your ACL leg has been rehabilitated properly as to regain complete confidence in loading that side.


  6. Hey Mark,

    This is very useful post thank you for writing this. I can see that you have positions to avoid but do you also have positions that you recommend when sitting? would you just keep your legs spread and try keep them in correct position while sitting down on a chair?

    Since I have knee valgus I cannot align them together in a straight line as of now, when walking but should I prioritize my knees or my foot/toes to pointing ahead first? If knees are pointing straight than my feet goes outwards, if I point my feet straight my knees go inwards. It’s gonna be one or the other for now. Or should I walk without thinking about it? majority of the time my knees will bend inwards when I lift it when walking.


  7. Hi there really interesting and helping blog u posted. I hav problem with the way i walk but i dont really know the actual problem or the cause of it but i would like to write some of the signs which are somehow related to what you posted. Firstly i have never been to a doctor to talk about it. I have being observing myself with The way i walk and i think my left foot is not the same as the right foot. Actually the the problem is with my left foot. From my observing i realise my left foot looks longer than the right foot and not actuali shaped as the right foot. What i mean here is my right leg faces inward at the thigh and at the knee while the foot turned out as out toeing. While the left leg’s thigh faces forward with the knee and toe they all face and move in the same direction. As the right foot rotates inward at the thigh and knee i dont find much dificulty in it during walking and i walk find but with the left leg all the thigh, knee and toe all facing forward i dont walk normally with it and during walking i feel the left leg longer than the right. And as i am walking my left leg moves with the pelvis and drops. I cant move it without the pelvis moving with it. So i once read a blog about gluteus medius and i thing the problem seems to be with my right gluteus medius cus when am walking my left foot always drops and move with the pelvis forward and i always feel that my left leg is longer. So this is it if there is anithing you know to help i would really appreciate it. Thank you.

  8. Hey Mark,
    First off thanks so much for this resource, it has helped me understand a lot about how my body works!

    From the bottom up I have hallux valgus, collapsed arches, inverted knees and APT. I feel like I am improving thanks to your resources but my left side just won’t budge.

    I have an ankle pinching pain that inhibits me from dorsiflexing and therefore I can’t keep my arch up effectively when squatting, running, walking etc. without collapsing inwards.

    As a test, I did heel drops on the floor. I start with my heels raised and then try to bring them down to the ground whilst maintaining the arch in my foot. Works fine on my right foot. But on my left, my arch collapses before my heel can reach the ground. This happens because my ankle starts pinching and simply hits a wall, not allowing me to dorsiflex further.

    I have tested this also when standing on one leg. The right works fine and I can stand on it with a good arch. Knee tracks straight, glute fire and I can keep a good arch. But on my left, the only way I can stop my arch from collapsing is by pushing my left hip outwards to work around the pinching in my ankle. If I didn’t do that, my ankle would collapse inward and I’d lose balance.

    I should also mention that when doing the wall push or kickbacks or deadlifts, I get snapping in the back of my knee when trying to get it to track straight. Also, my femur collapses inwards etc.

    After some research, I’m wondering if this is all happening due to an ankle impingement? I also feel a weird snapping sensation on the external malleolus when dorsiflexing. I can kind of push past it but it still snaps a little.

    When I do dorsiflexions with banded tallus distraction and/or pulling the fibula back, I feel like I finally get some ROM and can articulate with less pinching and no collapsing! But when I take it off I have stronger pinching pain again.

    Would you say I have an ankle impingement and should I be working through the pain?

    I’ve pretty much stopped squatting, jumping and running because my ankle keeps collapsing inwards.

    1. Hey Vincent,

      It sounds like you are indeed describing ankle impingement.

      Check out this post: How to improve ankle dorsiflexion.

      You will need to keep mobilising the ankle joint in the pathway where the ankles does not collapse. (The band exercise you described is great for this!)

      I would also add stretching the anterior section of the ankle to help open up the joint:

      All the best!


  9. Hello Mark, I suffer from bad posture and I have the opposite of Knee Valgus I have Knee Varus I was impressed on how much detail you made on this post I was wondering on what exercises I would have to do to get rid of my Varus.

    1. Hi Tyrone,

      Assuming that your knee varus is not structural in origin, you will generally need to:
      – release the popliteus, glutes and arches
      – strengthen lateral hamstring, hip internal rotators and evertors
      – Address any pelvis position issues

      (however- it really depends on your presentation.)

      I might need to do a blog post on this. Thanks for bringing it to my attention.


  10. Hi mark, thank you for this amazing post, i’ve been searching for years for something with quality like this.
    Everywhere people who talk about this problem, talks about two possible causes: genetics or posture. As some of my family members have the same problem as me (maybe worse cause of weight), i think I have a structural problem. When i stand with my knees toghether, my feet stand about 5 cm separated. However, thru my life I have learned how to stand in a way that i can look pretty normal, like not a knee valgus look. The REAL problem, the one that makes me suffer, and think all day, occurs when i walk. I have recorded myself walk, and can notice that i walk really weird because of my knock knees. My knees look to the sides while me feet look straight. They dont knock, i mean, they dont get to touch between them, but it looks pretty different than a normal walk. I cant sleep at night because of this. Do you think this excersises can help me?

  11. Thank you for this post. Ive had knock knees since childhood. If i try to keep my ankle straight my knees swell up and if I bend it, it hurts so bad 🙁 not sure why. But love to try your tups and see. May I know how frequently we should do these exercises? And how long would it take to see visible results?

    1. Hello Celine,

      Daily practice is the way to go.

      In terms of how long it’ll take to correct, it really depends!
      (Just make sure that your knock knees is not structural. Forcing movement could cause more injuries!)


  12. Do these exercises apply to knock knees with foot Supination? A long time ago I intentionally decided to stand this way to prevent the look of knock knees and it has stuck, now it’s a problem.

    1. Hey Alma,

      If a foot correction didn’t really resolve the knee valgus, I would assume the issue is coming from the hips. You may need to focus on this areas instead of your feet.

      (keep in mind, you can also have structural knocked knees which basically it is due to genetics :))


  13. Hello there Mark. Few years back I fell with my right leg moved aside. Since then I’ve been feeling some paints there each time I fall. And I’ve alsl discovered I developed knock knees too. Every time I try bend or stretch my right leg, it makes some cracking sounds. What do I need to do pls??

  14. Hi Mark
    When I put my knees together my feet are also together. Does this mean that I do not have knee valgus ? Also when I sit my feet are not that flat and I have some kind of an arch but when I stand on my feet my arches collapse and my feet become flat. Should I still strengthen the hip external rotators and the hip abduction muscles and stretch the hip internal rotators in order to shift a bit of the weight away from my collapsed arches ?

  15. Hi mark, 16/m here and I was wondering if my case can be solved by just exercises. Ever since I was little I could sit w type and point my feet upwards from that position. I am now at the point I can rotate my ankles 270 degrees easily and when i walk i look like a penguin. But i also have knees that are bending inwards at the same time and they face an about 60 degree angle whenever my feet are even close to straight. Is this something more serious or can it be fixed without surgery

    1. Hi Ben,

      That is a lot of movement in the hips!

      It sounds like you may have what we call femoral anteversion.

      If this is the case, you will get improvements with these exercises, however, since the cause of your presentation is due to structural reasons, there will be limitations on how far the exercises will take you.

      You can get surgery for it, but I would recommend against it in most cases.


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    Can you give your full facebbok name?? I want you to contact there .. Please Mark
    Or you can add me Ayushmaan Keshari Prasai

  17. Hi Mark,
    Thank you for this informative post. I first recognized that my legs where a little crooked when I was a kid, some 20 years ago. I saw other kids with straighter legs and didn’t know what to do about it. I even walked with my toes pointed inward, “pigeon toed”. Since then I’ve made myself aware of this and always walk with my feet pointed straight or slightly pronated, but my knees have always been slightly bent inward. I thought it must be a genetic issue. I’ve always liked being active though and have had trouble with my knees throughout my life and am now wondering if this is related to other types of pain I experience as well (my inner ankle for example). I tried running a few years ago and would generally experience swelling and pain in my knees at runs of 7 miles or more. I was mindful of running technique, but the pain persisted so I stopped this activity and took up lower impact yogo.

    I’m actually surprised to learn that this is such a well known issue and encouraged to learn that it’s potentially correctable. Some of your other readers experienced this condition after a procedure or injury. In my case I’ve been aware of it most of my life. Is it safe to work towards realignment after so many years? Hasn’t my body worn itself into certain positions and mechanics? How much time does it take to improve? Will the condition revert if strength in the specific regions is not maintained?

    Thank you for this excellent guide.

    1. Hey Lukas,

      If your knee valgus is directly causing you issues, you can definitely start correcting it now.

      As your body has based its posture and movement on the knee valgus, it is very likely that you will need to address other areas after the knees too. (eg. the hips, ankles pelvis etc)


  18. Hi mark,
    I’ve been struggling with this problem awhile now but I’m still young I’m 15 years old about to be 16 and I really want to fix this so what is the best most effective way without surgery and for it to happen the fastest? And about how long does it usually take for me to see results?

  19. Hello Mark, I just finished reading this and I would like to say that you wrote this very well. I have had flat feet for years now and I have some knee valgus caused by it. However, I am an athlete to trains and does squats. I researched and learned that for squats you need a good amount of hip internal rotation, preferably 45 degrees. I realize I have pretty bad hip internal rotation which therefore causes hip pinching when reaching parallel in a squat. Therefore I started doing some mobility work for the internal rotation to improve it along with ankle mobility work. However, the internal rotation mobility for the hip contradicts what you have here, as you mentioned that people with flat feet and knee valgus like myself should never do that, but rather hip external rotation. I am somewhat confused on what I should do since I am trying to fix my knee valgus while still being able to squat with lots of hip internal rotation since it is an important factor. Any advice would be great. FYI i have really good hip external rotation.

    1. Hey Collin,

      Internal rotation for the hip in a deep and narrow squat is very important. This allows the pelvis to move on a stable femur. (if you lack internal rotation and want to go deep on the squat, the knee and foot will cave in as compensation to get more depth in your squat.)

      These exercises are more so targeted for the upright position (hip 0-45 degrees flexion) as opposed to the deep squat position (hips ~90 degrees flexion).

      If your issue is impingement at the front of the hip:
      – work on Internal rotation of the hip (strength and mobility)
      – traction your hip
      – work on improving pure hip flexion

      Also if you have really good external rotation and severely limited internal rotation, have a quick google search on retroversion of the hip.


      1. Thank you for your reply.
        So basically a lack of hip internal rotation can cause a hip pinch feeling/impingement when squatting. However, should I still be doing internal rotation stretches even though I have flat feet? My knees go inward a little when doing lunges or squats. I feel like I need way more internal rotation for my squatting but I dont want it to make my knees even worse. Thank you for your help so far, I really appreciate it.

        1. I would still work on hip internal rotation in your case to get your squat depth.

          At the same time, you will need to work on your flat feet.

          I feel that your knee valgus is probably from the feet.


    1. Hi,

      You can, but you need to be aware of how your body responds to the positions.

      Do not push into anything that gives you pain. Be gentle and ease into it. If any doubts, feel free to contact me on facebook 🙂


        1. Hello Mark, a friend of mine is having lastly these problems, she had two car accidents, her legs were beautiful and straight, her problem started about 2 years ago. One day I asked her if she has some problems with her knees, I noticed that she stop using her leggings, skirts, and tide jeans, she said that something is happening and looking on the Internet we found that is KNEE VALGUS, I asked her to exercise. I think she should go to see an orthopedics, she is scared having surgeries, I found this information I am glad to share it with my friend.

  20. Hi Mark,
    first of all, thank you for the detailed instruction on how we can “fix” ourselves.
    Recently, I read an article about TFL relative to the IT Band. As per my understanding, when TFL is overactive, glutes can become somehow weakened and this could cause internal rotation of the tibia, so relasing and steaching TFL, while strenghtening the glutes, is a must, but the ITB also attaches to the knee via tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, which as far as I understand. has the same relation as TFL/glutes, one gets weekened while the other is overactiv. So in this sence, would it be also good to release and streach the peroneus longus while trainig tibialis anterior?
    Thanks again for the great article, I find it really usefull, since I am dealing with internat femur/external tibia rotation on my right leg.

    1. Hi Vasil,

      Tibialis anterior training will help with improving your foot arch support and releasing the peroneals will help with reducing pronation of the foot.

      Addressing both will help with your knee valgus!


  21. Hi Mark, I don’t know if I have false curvature or knocked knees because my ankles touch but my thighs are moved inwards and my knees too and my calves are far apart, will these exercises help me get straight legs ?

  22. Hello Mark my name is Stefan, I had ACL surgery on my right knee about 8 months ago, I have noticed I am experiencing these symptoms on my right knee and my physio said that it will straighten with time and exercise. I am currently doing lunges, leg press, bridges (hip exercise), calf raises, cardio, elastic band small sprints, and a few other exercises. I have been doing the exercises they tell me to do regularly and have not seen any change within the last 2 months. My knee still drastically goes inward when doing things such as: 1 leg squat, walking up/down stairs, exercises with my hamstring and other basic movements. My foot is also facing more outwards such as your C) “Strengthen the Poplitius” section but in your image it seems like it faces inward, mine is outward. If there is any way you have a few minutes to just talk to me over email or even better skype if that works please let me know. This would be mean the world to me Mark, I am a 21 year old Canadian student feeling hopeless with my knee and it really seems like you can help me more then my doctor and physio have..

  23. Hi Mark,

    I just recently noticed that I have the symptoms for knocked knees and I am trying to correct it as fast as possible before it gets worse.

    There may be other factors, but I believe the main causes are my weight, bad leg/knee alignment while driving, and sitting (possibly with bad posture) for long periods of time.

    I moved closer to work and started walking to work to get more excersice and help towards weight-loss. Thats when I noticed during walking that my knees rotate inward.

    I can’t avoid the time I sit during work, unfortunately.

    Is there anything you can suggest that I do, in addition to your excersices, to help improve my posture during sitting? Are there any excercises I can do while sitting at work? Is there a brace I can purchase that could help during walking and sitting? Is there an ideal position during sleep that would help correctly align my knee?

    Also, is there an ideal time frame when I should start seeing improvement? I am worried that I should seek professional help from my doctor if I don’t start seeing improvement…

    Your feedback is greatly appreciated! 🙂

    1. Hey Rae,

      Whilst driving/sitting, keep your knees pushed outwards (hip external rotation/abduction) as knees tend to fall inwards with knee valgus. At work, you could even wrap a resistance band around your knees to challenge yourself

      In terms of a brace, I try not to recommend braces as they make your muscles lazy!

      These exercises are a great place to start for your issues. But if you still have doubt after going through this blog post, I would still recommend seeing someone in person to make sure.


  24. I’m a 16 year old girl who has knees that go inward when I walk. What should I do to fix this for good??

  25. Hi Mark,

    Thank you very much for the detailed and comprehensive post on this issue.

    As you can notice, I have knock knees, more on the left leg. In addition to this, my kneecaps are pointing outward and my lower legs are very thin. I am very confused about what the issue might have been and where can I start to fix this. I have started moderate exercising (30mins-60mins/3-5 days a week) since January and now I notice my left knee makes a clicking sound whenever I squat or get up from a squatting position. It does sometimes carry a little pain with it.
    Would be very grateful if I hear back from you.


    1. Hi Raby,

      Clicking in the knee is usually either:
      a) Knee cap rubbing against the bone behind it
      b) Cartilage issue

      Either way, you would want to perform your squats with your foot,knee and hip aligned.


  26. Hey Mark,

    I was doing the exercises listed, but when it came to the external rotation and hip abductor strengthening ones (clam shell and wall slide) I was unable to feel my butt at all. No matter what I do, my quads activate and complete both exercises. Note that I can activate my butt normally- I just can’t activate it when completing this exercise. Do you have any recommendation to fix this? If it helps, I think I have also have flat feet and my knee has been making crackling sounds whenever I squat for several years now.

    Thank you for this blog! It has really helped me.

    1. Hi Hardik,

      Try to keep your pelvis slightly rotated AWAY from the direction of your moving leg.

      For example, If you are lying on your side with your left side down, rotate the right side (upper side) of the pelvis towards the left (towards the ground).

      This will help prevent you from using your pelvis during the exercise and isolate the glutes.


  27. Hi Mark!
    I’m a 21 year old woman and I’m suffering from knee valgus for around 8 years now. Thanks for sharing so much valuable information but I really want you to show all these exercises using videos. May God bless you!

  28. Hey Mark. When I put my feet together my knees do not touch at all but I feel like I have the symptoms you describe. I feel like my left femur rotates inwards and my tibia is rotated outwards. There is a lot of torque in my knee when I walk with my feet straight. Also, when I walk with my feet straight I feel like my left foot spins outward a little when I’m toeing off. Other things I’ve noticed on my left side is when I back squat, I’ve notice that my stance has my left foot not in line with my right. It is further behind it. When I line it up, it feels really unnatural.

    1. Hi Victor,

      Do you have tibial torsion?

      If this is the case, you can still do the exercises on the blog post, but perhaps focus on the knee exercises.

      Also check if your pelvis is rotated. Check out this post: Rotation of the pelvis. This may explain why your feet don’t line up.


  29. Hello sir,
    I recently had PCL Avulsion fracture of grade II in an accident.So i have a brace on my left knee recommended for 3 weeks.But suddenly i observed that my right leg have cave in i.e left was moved outwards.What should i do with one leg tear and other knocked

  30. I am a 70 year old female in good health. In 11/17 I went to my primary wirh pain in my right knee. My right leg was also bent and wouldn’t straighten. She gave me a cortisone shot which ended the pain and it has never resurfaced. I was referred to an ortho for the bent leg and eventually diagnosed with a valgus knee. I went to P T and continue to do what strengthening exercises at home. My leg is still bent. No surgery is recommended since I have no pain. I have difficulty standing up from a sitting position, walking up/down stairs, etc. Can anything be done to straighten my leg and eliminate or stop the progress of the valgus knee?

  31. Hi Mark,
    My ankles are 2-3 inches apart when I straighten my legs and knees are touching. But if I bend my knees even a little, my legs seems fine. while squatting and walking my knees move outward like a normal person. Can this be fixed with exercise or is it a bone deformity?

  32. Hi Mark,

    Thank you so much for this post! I have had pain in my left knee, beginning 6 years ago, when I was actively running marathons. Since then, various PTs have told me to do different things. All of them decided that my left knee cap comes inwards, so that tracking issue needed to be corrected. Some said I should strengthen my VMO, others said my glutes. I have tried both approaches, and yet, my knee cap still comes inwards. My left foot also goes outwards. This is kind of what you’re describing. My right foot does not go outwards when I walk.

    Now, 6 years later, I am getting a lot of swelling in both my knees, and have hip bursitis on my left hip. I really feel it is because the issue with my left knee hasn’t been resolved, and is now affecting my right leg, and left hip. I also noticed that my natural stance does have my stomach protruding outwards. So I think that I might have what you call, anterior pelvic tilt.

    I want to try the exercises you describe here, but I just want to ask if you think they all make sense for me, since both of my feet don’t go outwards when I walk, as you describe in your article. However, when laying down, both feet definitely fall outwards.

    Thank you again for this article. I feel like if I can understand why my knee is tracking inwards, and why my foot goes outwards, I can get to the root cause of the problem and all the pain. So far, doctors have not been able to figure this out.

    Thank you!

    1. Hi Preety,

      If you have tried all the VMO and glute exercises and you are still having issues, I would try to look at what is happening at your PELVIS/HIPS and ANKLES/FOOT.

      The knee is usually a VICTIM of poor functioning pelvis/hip or ankle/foot.

      Here is a post on: Anterior pelvic tilt

      But – I have a feeling you may also have a rotated pelvis. Check out this post: How to fix a rotated pelvis.

      If you have flat feet, check out this post: How to fix flat feet.


  33. Hi! I left a comment about my bunions on the flat feet thread! But I’ve realized I never said I have bow legs as well! I see you have exercises for knees touching… do you have any suggestions for trying to get knees closer together?! So my summary is bow legs, bunions (contemplating surgery on the worst one) and overpronation.

  34. Hi Mark!!

    I was overweight and obese for most of my life, i was 265 at my heaviest about 4 years ago, I’m at 180 right now, and have noticed my knees and legs. I run a lot but don’t usually do strength training, or clearly stretch as well as I thought. I’m committed to fixing this, and will be doing your exsercises. I will keep you posted on my progress. 🙂 I do have a couple questions. How often do u recommend I do these exsercises? Daily? And do u think I can still run or jog? Or should I focus on this for a while?



    1. Hi Andi!

      If you can do them everyday, I would recommend that!

      You can jog/run, but try to engage the muscles as mentioned in the post. Please note that it is not easy to change running technique quickly 🙂


  35. Hey Mark I’m currently 6 months after my right leg ACL reconstruction. My leg is doing fine overall but I notice it is caving in mostly when I squat or even more when I try a 1 legged squat. I also have some pain to the left of my right knee. Do you know if this common after ACL reconstruction? I do not see many articles talking about it specifically after ACL surgery and my physio is just working on strengthening my overall leg and hip. Should I take it into my own hands and start doing some of your exercises? I would appreciate your help so much. I am 21 years old and I’m worried that I won’t have a stable normal leg again. I appreciate your time Mark!

    1. Hi Stefan,

      I haven’t seen you squat, but if you wanted some general advice.

      Strengthen these:
      – Foot arch
      – VMO
      – Glute medius

      Release your:
      – Adductors
      – Vastus lateralis
      – Peroneals

      Task specific:
      – Work on partial squats/lunge with resistance band to emphasise glute med (hip abduction)
      – Master step ups, step downs and leg drops off varying heights . ( you need to learn to load the right knee. otherwise -the body will lean away from this leg causing it to cave in)
      -Balance work.


  36. Thanks so much, this is a great article and well explained exercises. I didn’t even realise that my knees caving in was a condition that could be worked on!! I love the gym and have good technique overall; I feel pretty strong. but what an eye opener your subtle exercises, combined with the stretching are. I could really feel my glute activating a lot more than when doing heavy squats. (Clam shell, wall slide) and love the leg lift for the quads. This is a proper training! I’m going to carry on and look forward to the results. I’m hoping for improved knees and a lifted bum. Also to reduce foot cramping. My feet cramp so easily, have done for years.
    Thanks again 😉

  37. I had a fall in November 2016 and injured my right knee. I fell sideways which resulted in a lot of bruising and pain. I didn’t hear a pop although my knee joint was so unstable I needed help to walk across the street to my house. I was walking two rottweilers when this happened. I’ve seen my chiropractor and acupuncturist along with a personal trainer. The acupuncturist got rid of the pain and I’ve been strengthening my muscles in my leg with exercises. I don’t want surgery so I didn’t go to an orthopedist. Now my right knee has genu valgum when I walk. My left knee is straight. I sent my personal trainer a link to this blog so I can add your exercises. I have problem with an internally rotated femur and have had trouble fixing it. I also have over pronation of my right foot. I also have external rotation of my tibia which has been corrected some through exercise. I hope your exercises will help me walk straighter.

  38. Hi Mark, Thanks for the article! I used to be overweight (175 cm ; 108 kg) since I started loosing weight 2 years ago (I went to 75 kg) , I noticed that my legs are not straight from the way I stand and walk.
    I can’t tell if I have Knee Valgus because when I stand with my knees touching my ankles touch too. And when I squat my knees do not knees turn inwards. But recently I gained weight (88 kg) and I started feeling a mild knee pain in both of my knees from walking an hour every day trying to loose weight again from diet and walking.
    Can you please tell me if I have knee Valgus from my pictures? and do you recommend to start these exercises?
    Thank you Again, you are amazing!!

  39. Hi Mark, i´ve been researching a lot of this topic and I foun your page as the most complete, but everyone says the same: “Your femur is internal rotated and your tibia external rotated” But believe me! I dont have this problem, I dont even hack flat feet!. My problem is that my tibia seems to grow outside, like if it was in a lateral plane! Do you know how can I adress this??
    I´m from Argentina and my English is not well at all hahah, sorry…
    By the way, i´ll be surfing on your page, I also have posture issues!

  40. Hi MArk,

    I am 27 Years old and i have this knee valgus issue. when i stand staright my knees collide together. And this is more prominent in my right left knee and very minimal in right. I experience weakness in my legs , can’t run much and even can’t exercise. but yes not any other issue in day to day life.

    please advice what should be done and by performing exercise can those knees be brought into right shape at this age ?

  41. Hi Mark, that was really very helpful. Plz I need to ask something about my son. He’s Two years old, born with spina bifida and Right club foot. The club foot responded to serial casting and he’s walking very good, Infact runs and plays good. But we notice external rotation of his right foot along with a pronated foot. Also he has a 0.85cm girth difference in both calf area and a bit tightness while dorsiflexing . It looks like a less than 1 CM limb length descripancy too. I’m too much worried for him. Can u please guide me n give your expert opinion.

    1. Hi Hina,

      Tight calf muscle, limited dorsiflexion, out turned foot are quite common after a serial cast.

      It should get better with normal use.

      In regards to 1cm leg length discrepancy, if it causing major issues then you can get heel inserts… however I would wait and see how your son goes. He may mobilise perfectly fine with a 1cm difference.


  42. Thanks for the awesome information. I have been looking for something on knock knees and this seems to be by far the best information i could ask for.

    My daugther is 12 years old. We noticed knock knees may be 2 year back. The knock knee was initially in 1 knee only but now it is in both the knees. When she stands with both knees touch, the difference between the two feet is around 15 cms. Can this exercises will help in curing this knock knees. Do we need to have some physiotherapist to get this exercises done.
    Doctors are suggesting to go for surgery only. Will surgery help in removing the knock knees totally? Are there any other implications of going for surgery ?
    Request you to please reply. Thanks.

    1. Hi Rodrigues,

      I would persist with these exercises if the knock knees are solely due to weak and tight muscles.

      If doctor is recommending surgery, did they do a Xray scan to determine structural issues of the leg bone?


  43. Hi Mark,
    Thank you so much for making this post. I’m not sure if knee valgus is my primary issue since I just tried the test at the top of this post and when i stand as pictured my knees dont touch. However, when i bend my knees, they move together, rather than moving straight forward in line with my toes. I have had some issues with a lot of stuff i don’t know enough about on the right side of my body from neck and shoulder all through hips/knees/ankles, and the last time I tried to speak to my GP about it he was pretty dismissive. And i’m thinking I should see someone who specializes in something that could help me. Would something like this be something I could see an orthopedic doctor about or would it be a different specialization?

    1. oops hit post early there I was gonna say also I followed you on FB and will be searching through more of your posts. I found this post by googling something like “how to fix knees that turn inwards” bc I recently took up fencing and when doing a lunge the person instructing me pointed out my knee not lining up with my foot. I had already been aware I have some messed up posture issues i’ve been trying to work on the the best of my abilities but honestly doing it with the lack of knowledge I have, i’m a bit nervous im doing more harm than good to myself, so i appreciate the breakdown you posted here.

      and another also, I just realized i was doing W sitting as i was typing this! thats an ingrained habit since childhood ive been trying to stop!

      1. Hey Sharon!

        If you have knees that go inwards when you lunge during fencing, here some possibilities:

        1. Weak glute medius

        2. Pronating feet
        Check this: How to fix flat feet

        3. Stiff leading ankle:
        Check this: How to improve ankle dorsiflexion

        4. Rotated pelvis
        (I’ll have a blog post this sooooon)

        5. Tibial torsion

        There are more reasons that will be affecting your knee, but these are a good place to start looking for your solution.


  44. Hey Mark! 🙂
    id really like your article.. i have some question with you about this article..
    Im Nihlah.. Student in Physical Therapy Hasanuddin University in Indonesia.. i want to make research about knee valgus and quadricep angle.. your article is good for my reference.. can you give me your email or something like this? I really need reference about knee valgus but when im searching on google..the literature its so minim..please reply in my email.. Thankyouuuu:)))

  45. Hi Mark thanks for sharing useful info,
    I dunno how to measure knock knee, my knees and ankles touch each other, Im 23, isnt it too late to wear knee braces and do particular exercises? ( how can i send a pic? It would be great if you could see it)

  46. Hi Mark,
    I have had my anterior tibialis removed from both legs. I cannot control my feet turning inward when I walk. Since then I’ve had torn ligaments in my knee ( I wear drop foot braces) am I screwed or What?

    1. Hi Scott,

      Why was the tibialis anterior removed? Did you have club foot?

      When the tibialis anterior is dysfunctional, foot drop is the often consequence.

      If you are wearing a brace, I would assume the inward placement of your feet may be coming from hip. Does your knees turn towards the midline as you walk as well?


  47. Hi Mark , I am currently 20 years old. When I stand straight my thighs and knees tough however i have a gap with my ankles. Also when I walk my legs don’t look straight. Basically my legs arent straight the top portion are too inner. Will these exercises help my legs become straight and eliminate my knees being inner.

  48. Hey Mark..
    I’m a 21yr. Old female. I have an anterior pelvic tilt in my right hip and my right knee points inwards. So should I do these exercises and stretches only on the right side?

  49. Hey Mark! Happy New Year! I have knock knees due to bad posture and weak muscles. and it really plays a part in my confidence in how I walk. I walk like a penguin and I wanna wear heels but can’t! Are the exercises above a good solution for my problem?

  50. Hi Mark, I am 14/M and I think I have knee valgus and I am very worried. I want to know if it is fixable and also the bone below my knee pains when I walk, does this also happen.

  51. I have very mild knock knees not sure if it’s structural or from weak msucles but I can force my knees to separate when standing with my feet together and I can also place something between my knees and bring the front part of my feet together, but when I stand up regulary you can barely notice it but barely too much if you know what I mean, do you think it is structural or muscle? the thing I think my legs have been like this for a long time but being able to separate them makes me unsure

  52. I have anteior pelvid tilt but i cant fix it. I think its because since my alignments are off due to knock knees i am unable to perform the stretches and activation exercises correctly. How can i fix this ? Thanks

  53. Hi Mark!

    I am 14 years old and i have severe knock knees. When my feet are just 1 inch away from each other my knees touch. It is extremely hard to walk nowadays and i am really worried.

    aside from that, i did not notice before but my leg in bends into my ankle. like when my feet are together a slightly smaller tennis ball can fit .

    my parents are not paying attention to my pleas and i do not know what to do

    could you please help me?


    1. Hi Sarah,

      If your knock knee is due to issues with your “tight/weak” muscles, then these exercises should help correct it.

      How are the exercises coming along?


  54. Hi Mark,

    Thanks for the post, going to start following this because I have been having this issue for a long time. Was just wondering, when I walk, should it be my toes pointing straight first or my knees? When I lift my leg off when I walk it bends outwards in the air then goes back in line again. Also I think the bottom of my foot turns inwards if I left up my knee when i try to keep my toes aligned to my knee. Thanks!

    1. Hey there,

      You want to keep your knees and toes in line.

      If your leg goes out to the side, it sounds like something is happening at your hip level.

      When you say your leg bends outwards, do you mean the knee goes out or the foot?


  55. With the general knock knee test you have shown, I dont see the knee valgus symptoms. But one of my knee (left one) is definitely turning/bending little inwards. Does the same exercises apply to me.

  56. My daughter is 13, when she stands up strait her knees point inward and her calf’s are about 3 inches apart, she is very self conscious about this. What can she do?

    1. Hey Sandra,

      Did your daughter do a lot of W sitting when she was younger?

      This can lead to structural changes in the leg/hip complex causing the knees to point inwards.

      If the issue is dictated by purely an imbalance of muscles, then the exercises mentioned on the post will help out.


  57. Hey Mark!
    I really need some help.
    I am nt so sure if I have knee valgus. I want to ask that in knee valgus, do the muscles at back thigh rotate inwards and the front thigh muscles outwards??
    When I slightly flex the muscles while standing, and rotate the knees inwards ( idk how to explain this properly but I rotate the thighs such that the front partgoes inwards and back part goes outwards), the legs look so much better. So is this knee valgus or something else?
    Thanks ^^

    1. Hey Rok,

      Generally – The outer muscles of the front AND back of thigh rotate the femur outwards (external rotation)…

      whereas the inner muscles of the front AND back of the thigh rotate the femur INWARDS (internal rotation)

      Do you mean you are push your HIP outwards but bring your knee inwards RELATIVE to the hip outward position? If you are, this is what you want to be doing to fix knee valgus!

      (Sorry for the delay in approving this comment! I must have missed it)

  58. Hi Mark can you help me pleas. For 6 months my femur has bent inwards a lot and I think it might be knock knees and I have recently got it am 15 years old and this has only happened to me recently. It is bent a lot inwards and non of my family members have it. Please help.

  59. I’d like to first thank you for your informative article and your selfless help.
    I’m 36/M, I’ve a weird situation. When I stand still with touching my ankle together then my knees have a distance of around 2-3 centimeters and if I try to touch knees together, that leads to the pain in upper femur. The problem occurs when I walk or run then my knee move inwards.
    What pattern should I follow?


    1. Hi Sam,

      This sounds like knee varus to me:

      Does this look like your legs?

      If so – you will need to follow another set of exercises. (Unfortunately – I do not have a blog post on this yet)


  60. Hi mark!!! My knees touch a few inches before my ankles and I feel like I walk funny, when I workout i feel like alot of stuff i do looks weird cause of this. Doctor told me it’s not bad enough so I can’t get surgery but I’m really really self conscious about this. Is there a way to maybe email or whatsapp you and I can get a bit of help? Youl be a huge lifesaver!

  61. Hi Mark!

    I just started doing these stretches last night. I woke up this morning with my knees and legs feeling a little strange (stretched out??) . I’m sure this is due to stretching muscles that needed it. I just want to make sure his is normal .

    Any concerns I should be looking out for?

    1. Hey Cece,

      If it is painful, then this is not normal!

      If it is just strange feeling, it might just be your body getting used to being stretched out.

      See how it goes 🙂


  62. Hi Mark,

    My legs don’t bend inwards like in the picture of knee valgus, but when my right foot faces forward, the knee actually turns inwards at a pretty bad 45 degree angle and it also causes my leg to bend very slightly out. I’ve had this problem since birth and it’s really affecting my progress as an athlete (I do hurdles) because I keep getting injured due to the awkward landing and strain caused by this problem. I’m only 16. What can I do?

    1. Hey Natalie,

      It’s hard to say without seeing you in person, but it sounds like your hip is excessively internally rotated. This may also occur with hyper-extended knees.

      You can still do these same exercises to help with it.

      You can test if you have excessive hip internal rotation by doing this test:

      Normal is around 40 degrees (give or take). If you are closer to like 75>, then that could be an issue.

      It may also be Femoral Anteversion with your foot in a compensated forward position. (see below)


  63. Hey Mark, and thank you for the effort you do to help people! I’ve had knee valgus for some years now, and believe it comes from Flat feet & bad postures when younger, i was also a bit overweight. Im now 24, i workout 4-5 days a week with 1 legday included minimum, im no longer overweight havent been for the past 3-4 years. Is there any exercises i shouldnt do while having legday?

    1. Hi Michael,

      For sure! It can certainly predispose you to it (among many other things as well!)

      To treat your Achilles locally first, I would recommend doing PAIN-FREE heel drops.

      Slowly lower yourself down. You may need to use your other leg to help you go back to the starting position if hurts. Make sure there is no/minimal pain! Try to aim for 20-30 reps.


  64. Hi Mark

    Thanks for the exercises and information. How often would you recommend doing the exercises? Daily? And when would you likely to expect improvement?



    1. Hey Colleen,

      I would start Daily and see how you go for the next 4-6 weeks.

      You should see improvements almost straight away as you learn to engage the right muscles… but please understand it is going to take some time correct completely!


  65. Thank you for a very nice and informative article.
    I have struggled with jumpers knee (verified with ultrasound) and ankle and lower calf pain (not any imaging taken, but I`m sure it`s tendonitis) for over half a year. It came on really suddenly, as I did not do any strenuous activities in that period due to pain underneath both feet (flexor hallucis longus tendonitis verified with MRI). I do not have a severe case of knee valgus, but they tend to go slightly towards each other.
    The thing is that both the knee and ankle problem came after seeing a physiotherapist that strongly argues for an anterior pelvic tilt posture (see arguments here: You write that Anterior pelvic tilt is one of the causes of knee valgus. Now, my knees aren`t pointing more towards each other after changing to a more anterior tilt posture, but do you think the posture change may be the reason for the jumpers knee and ankle tendonitis?
    I have done a lot of hamstring exercises, in addition to many of the ones you describe here. But nothing seems to make it better. Just added the popliteus exercise, as my physiotherapist recommended it as well. But do you really believe this exercise can have such a huge impact on my problems?
    I`m desperate to get back into activities, and would love any advice as to which exercises might be the best to focus on!

    1. Hi Eva,

      When you change anything in your posture, it is likely that your static and dynamic posture will be affected (sometimes for the better, sometimes for the worse… it really depends.)

      You want to adopt a dynamic posture that allows you use the most optimal movement pattern your body can achieve.

      In regards to your knee, I would focus on the area of injury first (releases to patella tendon, stretch/release quadriceps, knee cap tracking, progressive isometric>eccentric>concentric loading of tendon etc etc. (Which I will assume the physio already did)

      If your feet are a major factor, you will need to get that assessed. For now, you can have a look at this post on flat feet. If you over pronate, it is likely you are overloading your big toe (which is the action of the Flexor Hallucis longus).

      With a pronounced Anterior pelvic tilt, it generally causes the body to become more quadriceps dominant which could play a role in overloading the patella tendon.

      Which activities did you want to get back into ?


      1. Thanks for your reply!
        I have been instructed in the popliteus excercies, as well as a lot of hamstring excercises.
        My flexibility in ankles and other muscles has always been very good, and I can be bent in any direction without feeiling pain. This is almost a problem, because I “pass” all the tests performed on me.
        I really would like to get back into running.

  66. Hello Mark
    I’ve had knock knees since I was born but I’m not sure if they are genetic because my father doesn’t have them but my mother does. I am a 16 year old boy and my gap is about 8cm. I was wondering if my condition could improve witg exercises or if I have it for life and any exercises won’t cosmetically change the way they look.

  67. Oh hi mark,
    In my case i can push my knees out by force and also my arches are pretty high,never really been overweight,i want to know if the knees should rotate in or out because my knees appear to be rotated outside more to me, i can have a perfect alignment for a while before i get tired and it goes back to knocked knees.i have really no problem with running or walking but whenever i put on a tight looking pant it looks really bad

    1. Hi Sultan,

      In knee valgus, your knees will be oriented towards the mid line of the body, however, the knee cap would be pointing outwards relative to the knee joint.


  68. Hi Mark,
    My knees bend inwards only when walking not while doing squats or any other exercises, as far as I remember I didn’t have this issue before but as I started to put weight on it worsened, so can this be fixed using your programme?

    1. Hi Selina,

      As you put on more weight than your body can naturally properly hold against gravity, your knees can start to collapse inwards.

      In conjunction with weight loss, strengthening your muscles should be able to help resolve this posture issue.


  69. Hi. I have had knee valgus for years and still do. I like to do cardio four days a week. Is it safe to do the elliptical? I have some knee pain after. Is there any kind of knee brace I can use just for working out to protect my knee? I have been doing a lot of the PT exercises that you have provided and some extra from previous PT sessions. It has helped but I still have a long way to go. Thanks for your article

    1. Hi Allyson,

      I would try avoid any exercises that definitely makes your symptoms worse.

      You might need to change or modify the exercise so that it does not reproduce your pain (during and after).

      Elliptical is generally less impact compared to treadmill running, however, you will still need to exercise caution.

      There are no specific knee valgus braces that I am aware of.


    1. Hi J,

      Thanks for your input.

      I agree with you. The patella is outwards relative to the femur. It’s orientation as a whole will be inwards due to the internal rotation of the femur.


  70. Hello Mark,
    I’m really appreciative of all the information and of the knowledge that you share. I have a question about knee valgus. My knees are wierd on the inner sides. They are just fat. They are touching and there’s a small distance between my ankles, aproximately 3 centemeters. I’ve started noticing this “inner knee fat” six or seven months ago(I’m 25). I haven’t had such a problem before.. Well, I must admit that it upsets me a bit. What would you recommend for me? Will cardio workout combined with exercises that you shared be enough for me to get rid of those fat knees?And do you think that I’m starting to have knee valgus?

    1. Hi Lily,

      Are your knees touching only because of the fat or is it because your knees are actually turning inwards?

      I haven’t seen “inner knee fat” before. Are you sure it is not swelling?


  71. hello mark, thank you for this post. my own case is that I have had knock knees since 2012 but between 2013 and 2015 I put books or pillows between my knees to force them apart while standing with my ankles still touching and the result which I started noticing last year is that I can now force my leg into a normal straight posture or slightly bowed posture while standing or walking although my walk is funny at times and immediately I release my leg muscles my leg returns to its former knock kneed posture. what could be the problem?

      1. Hi Mark, where to contact you personally. I have genu valgus since childhood and recently got operated in one knee. Distal femur osteotomy. Knee is weak now. And my legs still knock kneed. I am very upset. Can’t go through all that pain and healing process of years. I had a titanium place inside my femur for one whole year and one more surgery was done to remove it because it was restricting my knee from bending. Vigorous painful physiotherapy made me reach only 90 degree. And since plate is removed I can bend it full. Healed now. But knee is always swelled and knock knees still present. I also have flat feel and I get bad pain in ankles and feet base bones or joints whenever I walk or stand for more than 15mins. Wearing arch support but still painful. Please help me! I’m 28 now. Don’t wanna get arthritis 🙁

  72. Hello Mark,
    First of all thanku so much for this article.
    I am 27 yr old girl and realized at the age of 22 that i am having knee valgus. I have it somewhere genetically. I visited a doctor recently, he said we cannot change the valgus moreover the valgus will cause early chapping of my knees. Can I atleast improve this? I go to gym but it pains in knees whenever i do heavy cardio? Is it ok if i continue gyming? Will these exercises help improve the posture?

    1. Hi Ekta,

      If you have structural knee valgus, that is, genetically you are designed like that, then it can not be completely “corrected”.

      However, especially if it is causing some issues with your cardio, I find in most cases, you can still at least improve it.

      The exercises in the post are best for that.


  73. How do you tell if your knock knees are structural or a muscle tightness problem? I think I might have always had knock knees. I’ve just noticed it more now because I’m overweight. I have no pain in my knees ever however I do have pain in my ankle. I find that I’m hyperextended too and I can pull my knee in and up and out. If I do this my ankles are nearly together. However if I lie on my side and don’t pull any muscles my ankles touch, does this mean it’s not structural?

    1. Hi Lauren,

      If you can straighten the legs out into a more neutral position by activating the right muscles, then it is not structural.

      Structural knock knees means that the bones/joints are oriented that particular way. So – it doesn’t really matter what you do to the muscles, the bones/joints will remain as they are.


  74. I always get made fun of at school because of the way I walk caused by my knock knees. I always try and catch the very early bus everyday to avoid humiliation. I hate walking in public and I turn around every second to make sure no one is behind me to mock me. I don’t go out with my friends anymore because I feel embarrassed. I’ve tried exercises but I can’t stick with them because I run out of breath easily. I don’t know what to do anymore I’m tired of crying about it, I wish I had straight legs :((((. Please it’s summer holidays and I have 4 weeks left til school starts, how can I straighten my legs fast? I’m 15 year old girl,tall and skinny.

    1. Hey Lucy,

      Try not to be discouraged. People only make fun of other people because they have their own insecurities about themselves. Be strong 🙂

      Were you born with knock knees? Or has it developed over some time now?


      1. I’m not sure if I was born with it but I know I had it when I was younger 🙁 . And thanks for replying 😁.

        1. Hi Lucy,
          I don’t have any advice for you as far as how to correct your walk but I do have advice about the teasing. When I was in elementary school my mom picked me up from school in tears. I always thought my walk was fine. But that day a boy pointed out it was different and that I walked like I had a stick up my butt… This stuck with me for the rest of my life. It was the beginning of my one and only insecurity. Don’t let it define you. Don’t let it limit you. The older I got, the more I realized that I was more worried about it than anyone else. I had boyfriend who wanted me to wear these cute shorts and dresses that were above the knee and I wasn’t having it. Then I realized that he didn’t care how I walked. It’s hard at times, I completely understand. But just know that it’s what makes you YOU. I have such a strong personality I tell people all the time that my knocked knees give me a level of humility, it humbles me. It makes me aware and sensitive to the feelings of others, it has given me compassion and empathy beyond measure. My knock knees have helped me become an amazing, kind, and nurturing woman. there are days that I would love to wear something without first looking at my knees, so when I turned 38 in August, on my birthday I wore the cutest rompers and SLAYED it, knock knees and all. I decided I wasn’t going to let everyone’s opinion of something I can’t change keep me from being me. You’re young and have a lot more crap to deal with, don’t let something as insignificant as the way you walk deter you…. Remember, there are paraplegics and amputees that would give anything just to be ABLE to walk, it could ALWAYS be worse so come to terms with it and then OWN IT! Good luck, sweet heart.

    2. Hi Lucy! Im 18 years old and have only just discovered thats not only me who has this, its great that you’ve found out so young. Try the simple ones first in sitting chair position, then work your way up, just keep trying 🙂
      When i was in primary school i was a district runner, ballet dancer and gymnast, i always sat in weird positions, during compitions i would get bullied for my posture and “bird legs”, the way the flail around when i run seemed to be the most common, it became so bad i stopped competing. I still hold those comments to heart but instead of letting them hurt me, i use them to motivate myself to get better x
      (also people in all school situations are A holes and they really determine nothing in your life)

  75. Hi Mark,

    I’d like to first congratulate you on creating the best article post i have seen with regards to the issue.

    I think video would be a great step for you, in the eyes of a reader, I would also like to see some time frames till mending will begining so I can get on with my life (I realise this will be dependant on the serverity of the issue, but if you coukd do what you can id be hugely grateful).

    Last thing if you could give some technical names of the muscles that need loosening and muscles that need strengthening so I can find my own exercise to work into my routine.

    This post is already one of the best I’ve have ever seen and you have gained a follower. The thing I mentioned above would really bring it all to the next level for me and many others.

    Thanks again,
    Trent Williams.

    1. Hey Trent,

      Videos are definitely on the to-do list! And thank you so much for the feed back!

      Main muscles that require loosening are your:

      – Tensor fascia lata
      – Adductor group (Magnus, longus, brevis etc)

      – Biceps femoris

      – Gastrocnemius
      – Soleus

      Main muscles for strengthening are your

      – Gluteal group (Maximus, medius, minimus)

      Tibial internal rotation:
      – Popliteus

      Foot arch
      – Tibialis posterior
      – Tibialis anterior
      – Flexor hallucis long
      – Flexor digitorum

      Hope this helps!


  76. Hello Mark,
    First of all thanku so much for this article.
    I am 27 yr old girl and realized at the age of 22 that i am having knee valgus. I have it somewhere genetically. I visited a doctor recently, he said we cannot change the valgus moreover the valgus will cause early chapping of my knees. Can I atleast improve this? I go to gym but it pains in knees whenever i do heavy cardio? Is it ok if i continue gyming? Will these exercises help improve the posture?

  77. Hey Mark,

    I am 27yrs girl and realized I have a knock knee a few months back. I feel very embarrassed of my body structure, walk now. I started doing few exercises but when the doctor said it is not reversible, I was demotivated and stopped doing these exercises regularly, I do gym 3/4 times a week though. And now when I read some comments in your article which says they have seen the results make me feel glad and motivate to try all this again.
    Thank you for the article.
    Can you tell me: 1. does knock knee may also cause bad body posture while sitting i.e. crouched shoulders etc. I recently observed that I am not sitting in proper posture. I was worried because both are related to bones. 2. I understand knock knee is not reversible but can it show little improvement if I exercise daily? I have an 11cm gap in my ankles.

    1. Hi Tulip,

      If you were born with knock knees, this likely means that your issue is structural. There may be some limitation to how far the exercises will get you, however, remember that there is always something we can improve on.

      Having knock knee can definitely cause other postural issues further up the body chain.


      1. Okay.. I am doing other gym activities and legs one day now. Should I do leg exercises for knock knee daily ? How many set and repetition ?
        Also I read about yoga. What will more useful for knockknee yoga or these exercises?
        And lastly how long it might take to show some improvements? (I know it depends on cases, but still, as I said I have 11cm gap in feet)

        1. Hi Tulip,

          You can do these exercises everyday.

          Yoga is a great form of exercise, however, it may not be specific for addressing knock knees.


      2. And I am not sure about my how n when knock knee developed in me. But I guess it developed when I was 15-16yeas old. I can be wrong. Is it possible to develop knock knee in this age?

  78. Hello Mark
    Is there any video footage of these exercises? The explanations are clear, but I would like to be able t help a friend and if I could direct her to a good and informative link that you might have made, I think it would be easier for her to engage with the exercises frequently – just wondering
    Your website is a real find -thank you!

  79. hi mark
    I found that I have knees valgus , but before I discover it I join a GYM and during it I felt that I can’t move my legs up and down , my hip is pain lots , like something hold my hip joint , so what do you think I have to do ? , ps : its getting bad day after day

  80. Hey Mark.

    Thanks a lot for this article indeed.
    Two months ago, I started suspecting that my knees are tilted inwards. I visited an Orthopedician today and he confirmed it.

    I started Googling about how to fix it, because I am feeling really bad. I have been dieting and exercising for 9 years now to look good, but I still ended up with a knee deformity.

    Anyways, I wanted to ask how many times per week you recommend that I do these exercises?

    Thanks again.

    1. Hey Jake,

      Both are very good exercises to engage the hip abductors.

      I like to do both!

      However – with the wall slides, I like it as it is engaging hip extension (via hamstring/glute max) whilst hitting glute medius at the same time.

      Since movement rarely occurs in isolation (esp. with walking, squatting, standing etc), it is a good one to do.


  81. Hi Mark,

    I came across your website while looking up the Dowager hump, which I have. Since then, I have read several of your articles. You mention the use of a massage ball in most of them. However, I do not have one. In this case, what else can I do to release my muscles instead?

    1. Hi Vrinda,

      Any ball of similar size will do, But, a lacrosse massage ball seems to have the right amount of firmness to help release the muscles without hurting too much.


  82. Hi Mark,
    I suspect that my son is suffering from Knee Valgus. We have visited many doctors but no one is able to see the abnormality in his gait. I am worried that he might end it up as a permanent issue. He is only 2 yrs old and I want to correct it asap. We are from India and would like your advice. Please suggest

    1. Hi Amrita,

      At what age did your son start to walk?

      Also – did he crawl before he walked?

      Many toddlers will grow out of their knee valgus/flat feet once their walking muscles are stronger (providing that it is not a structural abnormality).



  83. Hey mark,
    I came to your site before to see if I could correct ATP, and after a few months I did see a good result. I had no idea what knocked knees were until a few days ago when I noticed that I couldn’t tough my ankles together. My immediate response was to see if you made a page to correct it! I’m glad I found this, and I’m starting right now!

    1. Hello,

      When doing these exercises, or working on my knees, I always feel a pain/ stretch in the outside of my hamstring. If I am stretching to touch my toes, or bend at the waist while keeping my knees straight i feel the pain/ stretch go through the outside of my hamstring, to the back of the knee, and sometimes down to the top of my foot and I will feel it “pop” in my butt and on my foot. I assume this is due to my lateral hamstring/ hamstring tendon being tight, but I just wanted to know if this pain would decrease after doing these exercises and my hamstrings would start to “loosen up” to open up my knees and keep them straight.

  84. Hi Mark. I have Knees Valgus and I want to fix it. Do I have to exercise everyday? How many days by week and how many times by day do I have to exercise?


      1. Hi Mark,
        How long should it take for someone who has moderate – severe knee vulgis to see differences if they do these exercises once a day?

        1. Hey there Delila,

          If you do not have any tightness, you can actually correct it straight away.

          Holding it in that position throughout the day with your daily activities is another story.

          If you have quite a bit of tightness, it may take more than 6 weeks to even start to really loosen them up to allow you to regain a neutral knee position.


  85. Have had an operation on it for dislocation and it swells when I do squats and also have knee valgus so will these exercises make my knee better

    1. Hi Barbara,

      Providing that your bones are not structurally causing your knee valgus, then these exercises will definitely help you out.

      If you are squatting and it swelling up, you might want to cut back until you fix your underlying issues with your alignment first.

      Remember – try to keep your hip, knee and ankles aligned with each other.


  86. I’ve been doing these exercises for only 4 weeks and I can ALREADY see the difference!

    Just wanted to let you know…. YOU ARE A LEGENDDDDD

    1. Hi Jack,

      Not that I am aware of!

      If anything, many of the exercises would help with an Anterior Pelvic tilt.

      Anterior pelvic tilt is one of the causes of knee valgus. So by correcting knee valgus, you may indirectly help correct the pelvic tilt.


    1. Hi Joy,

      Very common question! But to truthfully give you an answer…. It really depends!

      There are some people who just need to be more aware of their body and activate certain muscles to correct it. These people will see results immediately.

      Whereas others may have very tight and/or weak muscles that need to be trained over time (eg. >6 weeks) to see results.


  87. This is a great article! Please could you clarify whether these exercises apply to people who are not knock kneed when standing but whose knees only cave in on a squat? If anything, I am slightly bow legged but my knees naturally want to go together when I squat. Thank you!

    1. Hi Adele,

      Most definitely you can do these exercises if your knees cave inwards during a squat.

      I would try to do exercises that target the same muscles …. but in the exact position in your squat when your knees start to cave in.

      For example, you can do crab walks like this guy. But try to do it in a deeper squat position.


  88. Hi Mark,
    Thank you very much for the article, I’m going to try this today at the gym. For me, one knee caves inward when I bend it…the other is straight. I even have trouble doing leg extensions with that knee, so in an effort to “stretch” my knee back into proper alignment, I have been using a stretch band around my ankle that pulls inward (while focusing on keeping my knee in line with my hip). It seems to help align my leg bones better. What are your thoughts on doing leg extensions this way. Should I use a foam roller (above and below the knee) on the outside or inside of my leg, or both, prior to doing this exercise?

    1. Hi Andre,

      Are you saying when you do a squat, you feel that one of your knees caves inwards? If so – I would first check to see if you are shifting to one side in that squat.

      Stretch band between the legs are great for cue the knees to drive out (via glute activation). You can do them with extensions , but try to combine it with some sort of weight bearing exercise (lunge, squat etc)

      You can focus on foam roller the groin/adductor group and see how that goes to begin with.

      Feel free to post a picture if it illustrates your problem clearer.


          1. I can imagine 🙂
            Could you give me some tips, with what part body should i work?
            I read that i should strengthen internal muscles, rolling ITB, massage glute muscels. Is it right? Is there more things should i do?

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