How to fix your Knee Valgus

Got weird looking knees?

Do they cave inwards?

… Or do you lack a thigh gap?

Yes?… Then you may have KNEE VALGUS!

This post will cover:

// What is Knee Valgus?

knee valgus

Knee Valgus is a condition where the knees cave inwards towards the mid line of the body.

It is also referred to as being “knock knee” (… or having “no thigh gap”).


// How to determine if you have Knee Valgus:

Stand up straight. Bring your legs together.

Look down.

If your knees are touching and there’s a large distance between your ankles, then you may have those knock knees!

Note: I do realise this is probably not the most accurate test… BUT – it does give you the general idea.


// Why you need to fix it

With Knee Valgus, you lose the optimal alignment of your whole leg.

As a result, there is a much higher risk of developing issues such as:

  • Arthritis
  • Ligament damage
  • Meniscal tears
  • Knee cap tracking problems
  • (… and a whole lot of other issues involving the lower back, hip and ankle!)

// Characteristics

  • Hip Internal rotation + Adduction
    • “Hip rolls/moves inwards”
  • Tibia external rotation
    • “Lower leg turns outwards”
  • Foot pronation
    • “Foot arch collapses”


// The Causes

a) Postural:

If you have an Anterior Pelvic tilt, this can cause your hip to internally rotate and cause your knees to cave in.

Click here to see if this is your issue.


b) Issues with the Hip/Knee/Ankle:

Essentially – if your ankle, knee and/or hip joints aren’t doing their job properly, it can most definitely lead to Knee Valgus.

I have addressed of all these areas in the exercise section below.


c) Structural:

The following factors can lead to physical changes to the actual knee bone/joint formation.

  • Genetics
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rickets
  • Scurvy

Unfortunately – there is no way we can undo these changes once they are established. 🙁

However… we can still improve your knee alignment (… as much as possible) with the right exercises. 🙂


// Avoid these positions!

a) ‘W’ sitting: 

This style of sitting is mainly seen in children. Don’t do it! (… Or don’t let your children do it)

b) Driving:

When driving, try to keep your knee and foot in the same alignment. Many people tend to have their knee facing the brake pedal and their foot on the accelerator.

c) Sitting with knees inwards:

Do you sit like this?… I know it probably looks better than sitting with a massive “leg spread”, but it’s not doing you any good if you have knee valgus.

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How to fix your Knee Valgus

Let’s break this section into 4 parts:

1. The Hip

The problem: Hip internal rotation + Adduction

(In other words… The hip joint turns and collapses inwards). This causes the  knee to collapse inwards.

// Releases:

We need to loosen up those tight muscles which are causing your Hip internal rotation and Adduction.

How to do a release:

  • Place the target area (see below) on top of a massage ball.
  • Apply your weight over the ball
  • Proceed to roll up/down/circle around the area.
  • Continue for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side.

a) Adductor

Release point:

  • Inner part of your thigh

b) TFL

Release point:


// Stretches:

Next step!

Now that you’ve smashed these muscles, it’s important that you follow it up with some stretching!

a) Adductor


  • Lunge to the side. (see above)
  • Aim to feel a deep stretch along the inside of the leg.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side.

b) TFL


  • Assume the forward lunge position. (see above)
  • Keep your feet in line with each other.
  • Proceed to lunge forward.
  • Lean your hips to the side whilst using your arm on a support to keep your balance.
  • Aim to feel a stretch in the front/outer side of your hip.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on other side,


// Joint mobilisation:

If your hip joint is stiff, it may be biased to stay in the rolled in position.

External rotation:


  • Sit on the floor with your back to the wall.
  • Place your feet together.
  • Sit as straight as possible.
  • Push your knees down.
  • Hold for 60 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.

// Strengthening

*** READ THIS ***: It is vital that you understand how to activate the muscles that are responsible for Hip abduction and External rotation. You will need to activate them during the exercises as shown in Step 4 (down below).

a) Clam shell (External rotation)


  • Lie on your side with your knees bent at 90 degrees.
  • Whilst keeping your ankles together, lift up your upper leg as high as possible
  • Make sure that you do not move your pelvis.
    • Don’t cheat! Only the leg should be moving.
  • Feel your External rotator muscles (aka your butt) activating.
  • Hold for 3-5 seconds at end range.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.

b) Wall slide (Abduction)


  • Lie on your side with your back 30cm from a wall.
  • Bend your bottom leg slightly as to support your body.
  • Plant your foot of the upper leg against the wall.
  • Apply a firm pressure on the wall through your heel.
  • Whilst maintaining this pressure, slide your upper leg up/down the wall.
  • Make sure you feel your Abductor muscles (aka your butt) activating.
  • Hold for 3-5 seconds at end range.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.


2. The Knee:

Image courtesy of jk1991 at


a) Releases of lateral hamstring

When the lateral hamstring (called your Biceps femoris) is tight, it causes external rotation of the lower bone (tibia). This causes the knee to cave in relative to the tibia.


  • Whilst sitting on the floor, place a massage ball underneath the outside part of the back of your knee. (see above)
  • Proceed to apply pressure through the ball.
  • Straighten and bend your knee.
  • Continue for 1 minute.
  • Repeat on other side.


b) Strengthening of the Quadriceps

Weak thigh muscles do not do a good job at controlling the alignment of the knee complex. This leaves the knee susceptible to Knee Valgus!


  • Lie down on your back.
  • Lock your knee by flattening it onto the floor.
  • Make sure you can feel your quadriceps muscles engaging.
  • Lift your locked leg up/down 30cm.
  • Repeat 30 times.


c) Strengthen the Popliteus

This muscle is responsible for aligning your knee joint complex.


  • Sit down with your hip/knees bent at 90 degrees.
  • Hold your knee straight with your hands.
  • Turn your lower leg inwards
    • (Internal rotation of the tibia bone)
  • Make sure your foot does not lift off the ground.
  • Repeat 30 times.
  • Repeat on other side.

3. The Ankle

Image courtesy of Flare at

The problem: If your ankle collapses inwards (pronation), it can cause your knee to roll inwards.


// Improving Dorsiflexion of the ankle

Having full range of motion in your ankle is essential in any form of leg movement (running, squatting, jumping, walking etc).

Without proper movement and flexibility, the ankle will likely over pronate (… which is a fancy way of saying that your foot arch collapses), and thus can cause the knees to cave inwards.

How much ankle flexibility should you aim for?

Ideally – Aim to get your toe roughly 8cm from the wall with your knee still in contact with the wall. (This may take some time if you are very tight in your ankle.)

a) Release the Calf muscle


  • Place your calf muscle on top of a foam roller/ball. (see above)
  • Put your other leg on top and apply pressure down towards the foam roller. (if required)
  • Roll your leg from side to side.
  • Make sure you cover the whole muscle
  • Do this for 1-2 minutes each side.


b) Stretch the Calf muscle


  • Place the top of your foot against a wall (see above)
  • Keep your heel planted on the floor.
  • Learn forward into your ankle.
  • Aim to feel a deep stretch sensation at the back of the calf.
  • Hold for 1-2 minutes.

c) Ankle joint mobilisation

The plunge exercise:


  • Assume a lunge position with your hands on a wall for support.
  • Using your body weight, proceed to plunge forward as to place pressure on the front ankle.
  • Keep the heels of your front leg in contact with the floor throughout movement.
  • Repeat 30 times.

// Improving the arch support:

a) Strengthen the arch

*** READ THIS ***: It is vital that you understand how to do the Short Foot exercise properly. It will be required to be activated during the exercises as shown in Step 4 (down below).

Short foot:


  • Sit down on a chair with your feet on the ground.
  • Whilst keeping your toes relaxed, proceed to scrunch the under-surface of your foot.
  • If performed correctly, you should be able to feel the muscles under your foot tense up.
  • Hold this for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 20 times.
  • Progress to a standing position once you understand how to do the exercise properly.

4. Combining it all together

This last part of this post is actually the most important!

Why?… It is where you will learn how to use your Hip, Knee and Ankle with each other to hold the ideal knee alignment.

Let’s go!

a) Wall push

  • Lift your hip to ~90 degrees and place the side of that leg against a wall. (see position above)
  • Activate short foot exercise on the foot that is planted on the floor. (see Short Foot exercise)
  • Bend your planted leg to ~15 degrees.
  • Try to put more of your weight on the heel of the foot.
    • This engages your hip muscles more and places less stress on your knee.
  • Push the lifted leg into the wall.
  • Hold this position for 5-10 seconds.
  • Repeat 5 times on alternate sides.

b) Step up

  • For this exercise you will need to use a step.
    • Start with a step ~10cm in height.
  • Place your leg onto the step.
  • Remember to engage your Short foot and Hip abductors
  • Step up and slowly lower yourself down.
    • Make sure that your knee and feet are aligned throughout the exercise.
  • Repeat 10-20 times.
  • Repeat on other side.


All done!

Say farewell to your Knee Valgus once and for all!

Any questions? Leave me a question down below in the comments section!


I am a physiotherapist who has personally experienced the pain as a result of bad posture. I would like to offer you some of the solutions that I and my patients have greatly benefited from.

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137 thoughts on “How to fix your Knee Valgus

  1. Hi MArk,

    I am 27 Years old and i have this knee valgus issue. when i stand staright my knees collide together. And this is more prominent in my right left knee and very minimal in right. I experience weakness in my legs , can’t run much and even can’t exercise. but yes not any other issue in day to day life.

    please advice what should be done and by performing exercise can those knees be brought into right shape at this age ?

  2. Hi Mark, that was really very helpful. Plz I need to ask something about my son. He’s Two years old, born with spina bifida and Right club foot. The club foot responded to serial casting and he’s walking very good, Infact runs and plays good. But we notice external rotation of his right foot along with a pronated foot. Also he has a 0.85cm girth difference in both calf area and a bit tightness while dorsiflexing . It looks like a less than 1 CM limb length descripancy too. I’m too much worried for him. Can u please guide me n give your expert opinion.

    1. Hi Hina,

      Tight calf muscle, limited dorsiflexion, out turned foot are quite common after a serial cast.

      It should get better with normal use.

      In regards to 1cm leg length discrepancy, if it causing major issues then you can get heel inserts… however I would wait and see how your son goes. He may mobilise perfectly fine with a 1cm difference.


  3. Thanks for the awesome information. I have been looking for something on knock knees and this seems to be by far the best information i could ask for.

    My daugther is 12 years old. We noticed knock knees may be 2 year back. The knock knee was initially in 1 knee only but now it is in both the knees. When she stands with both knees touch, the difference between the two feet is around 15 cms. Can this exercises will help in curing this knock knees. Do we need to have some physiotherapist to get this exercises done.
    Doctors are suggesting to go for surgery only. Will surgery help in removing the knock knees totally? Are there any other implications of going for surgery ?
    Request you to please reply. Thanks.

    1. Hi Rodrigues,

      I would persist with these exercises if the knock knees are solely due to weak and tight muscles.

      If doctor is recommending surgery, did they do a Xray scan to determine structural issues of the leg bone?


  4. Hi Mark,
    Thank you so much for making this post. I’m not sure if knee valgus is my primary issue since I just tried the test at the top of this post and when i stand as pictured my knees dont touch. However, when i bend my knees, they move together, rather than moving straight forward in line with my toes. I have had some issues with a lot of stuff i don’t know enough about on the right side of my body from neck and shoulder all through hips/knees/ankles, and the last time I tried to speak to my GP about it he was pretty dismissive. And i’m thinking I should see someone who specializes in something that could help me. Would something like this be something I could see an orthopedic doctor about or would it be a different specialization?

    1. oops hit post early there I was gonna say also I followed you on FB and will be searching through more of your posts. I found this post by googling something like “how to fix knees that turn inwards” bc I recently took up fencing and when doing a lunge the person instructing me pointed out my knee not lining up with my foot. I had already been aware I have some messed up posture issues i’ve been trying to work on the the best of my abilities but honestly doing it with the lack of knowledge I have, i’m a bit nervous im doing more harm than good to myself, so i appreciate the breakdown you posted here.

      and another also, I just realized i was doing W sitting as i was typing this! thats an ingrained habit since childhood ive been trying to stop!

      1. Hey Sharon!

        If you have knees that go inwards when you lunge during fencing, here some possibilities:

        1. Weak glute medius

        2. Pronating feet
        Check this: How to fix flat feet

        3. Stiff leading ankle:
        Check this: How to improve ankle dorsiflexion

        4. Rotated pelvis
        (I’ll have a blog post this sooooon)

        5. Tibial torsion

        There are more reasons that will be affecting your knee, but these are a good place to start looking for your solution.


  5. Hey Mark! 🙂
    id really like your article.. i have some question with you about this article..
    Im Nihlah.. Student in Physical Therapy Hasanuddin University in Indonesia.. i want to make research about knee valgus and quadricep angle.. your article is good for my reference.. can you give me your email or something like this? I really need reference about knee valgus but when im searching on google..the literature its so minim..please reply in my email.. Thankyouuuu:)))

  6. Hi Mark thanks for sharing useful info,
    I dunno how to measure knock knee, my knees and ankles touch each other, Im 23, isnt it too late to wear knee braces and do particular exercises? ( how can i send a pic? It would be great if you could see it)

  7. Hi Mark,
    I have had my anterior tibialis removed from both legs. I cannot control my feet turning inward when I walk. Since then I’ve had torn ligaments in my knee ( I wear drop foot braces) am I screwed or What?

    1. Hi Scott,

      Why was the tibialis anterior removed? Did you have club foot?

      When the tibialis anterior is dysfunctional, foot drop is the often consequence.

      If you are wearing a brace, I would assume the inward placement of your feet may be coming from hip. Does your knees turn towards the midline as you walk as well?


  8. Hi Mark , I am currently 20 years old. When I stand straight my thighs and knees tough however i have a gap with my ankles. Also when I walk my legs don’t look straight. Basically my legs arent straight the top portion are too inner. Will these exercises help my legs become straight and eliminate my knees being inner.

  9. Hey Mark..
    I’m a 21yr. Old female. I have an anterior pelvic tilt in my right hip and my right knee points inwards. So should I do these exercises and stretches only on the right side?

  10. Hey Mark! Happy New Year! I have knock knees due to bad posture and weak muscles. and it really plays a part in my confidence in how I walk. I walk like a penguin and I wanna wear heels but can’t! Are the exercises above a good solution for my problem?

  11. Hi Mark, I am 14/M and I think I have knee valgus and I am very worried. I want to know if it is fixable and also the bone below my knee pains when I walk, does this also happen.

  12. I have very mild knock knees not sure if it’s structural or from weak msucles but I can force my knees to separate when standing with my feet together and I can also place something between my knees and bring the front part of my feet together, but when I stand up regulary you can barely notice it but barely too much if you know what I mean, do you think it is structural or muscle? the thing I think my legs have been like this for a long time but being able to separate them makes me unsure

  13. I have anteior pelvid tilt but i cant fix it. I think its because since my alignments are off due to knock knees i am unable to perform the stretches and activation exercises correctly. How can i fix this ? Thanks

  14. Hi Mark!

    I am 14 years old and i have severe knock knees. When my feet are just 1 inch away from each other my knees touch. It is extremely hard to walk nowadays and i am really worried.

    aside from that, i did not notice before but my leg in bends into my ankle. like when my feet are together a slightly smaller tennis ball can fit .

    my parents are not paying attention to my pleas and i do not know what to do

    could you please help me?


    1. Hi Sarah,

      If your knock knee is due to issues with your “tight/weak” muscles, then these exercises should help correct it.

      How are the exercises coming along?


  15. Hi Mark,

    Thanks for the post, going to start following this because I have been having this issue for a long time. Was just wondering, when I walk, should it be my toes pointing straight first or my knees? When I lift my leg off when I walk it bends outwards in the air then goes back in line again. Also I think the bottom of my foot turns inwards if I left up my knee when i try to keep my toes aligned to my knee. Thanks!

    1. Hey there,

      You want to keep your knees and toes in line.

      If your leg goes out to the side, it sounds like something is happening at your hip level.

      When you say your leg bends outwards, do you mean the knee goes out or the foot?


  16. With the general knock knee test you have shown, I dont see the knee valgus symptoms. But one of my knee (left one) is definitely turning/bending little inwards. Does the same exercises apply to me.

  17. My daughter is 13, when she stands up strait her knees point inward and her calf’s are about 3 inches apart, she is very self conscious about this. What can she do?

    1. Hey Sandra,

      Did your daughter do a lot of W sitting when she was younger?

      This can lead to structural changes in the leg/hip complex causing the knees to point inwards.

      If the issue is dictated by purely an imbalance of muscles, then the exercises mentioned on the post will help out.


  18. Hey Mark!
    I really need some help.
    I am nt so sure if I have knee valgus. I want to ask that in knee valgus, do the muscles at back thigh rotate inwards and the front thigh muscles outwards??
    When I slightly flex the muscles while standing, and rotate the knees inwards ( idk how to explain this properly but I rotate the thighs such that the front partgoes inwards and back part goes outwards), the legs look so much better. So is this knee valgus or something else?
    Thanks ^^

    1. Hey Rok,

      Generally – The outer muscles of the front AND back of thigh rotate the femur outwards (external rotation)…

      whereas the inner muscles of the front AND back of the thigh rotate the femur INWARDS (internal rotation)

      Do you mean you are push your HIP outwards but bring your knee inwards RELATIVE to the hip outward position? If you are, this is what you want to be doing to fix knee valgus!

      (Sorry for the delay in approving this comment! I must have missed it)

  19. Hi Mark can you help me pleas. For 6 months my femur has bent inwards a lot and I think it might be knock knees and I have recently got it am 15 years old and this has only happened to me recently. It is bent a lot inwards and non of my family members have it. Please help.

  20. I’d like to first thank you for your informative article and your selfless help.
    I’m 36/M, I’ve a weird situation. When I stand still with touching my ankle together then my knees have a distance of around 2-3 centimeters and if I try to touch knees together, that leads to the pain in upper femur. The problem occurs when I walk or run then my knee move inwards.
    What pattern should I follow?


    1. Hi Sam,

      This sounds like knee varus to me:

      Does this look like your legs?

      If so – you will need to follow another set of exercises. (Unfortunately – I do not have a blog post on this yet)


  21. Hi mark!!! My knees touch a few inches before my ankles and I feel like I walk funny, when I workout i feel like alot of stuff i do looks weird cause of this. Doctor told me it’s not bad enough so I can’t get surgery but I’m really really self conscious about this. Is there a way to maybe email or whatsapp you and I can get a bit of help? Youl be a huge lifesaver!

  22. Hi Mark!

    I just started doing these stretches last night. I woke up this morning with my knees and legs feeling a little strange (stretched out??) . I’m sure this is due to stretching muscles that needed it. I just want to make sure his is normal .

    Any concerns I should be looking out for?

    1. Hey Cece,

      If it is painful, then this is not normal!

      If it is just strange feeling, it might just be your body getting used to being stretched out.

      See how it goes 🙂


  23. Hi Mark,

    My legs don’t bend inwards like in the picture of knee valgus, but when my right foot faces forward, the knee actually turns inwards at a pretty bad 45 degree angle and it also causes my leg to bend very slightly out. I’ve had this problem since birth and it’s really affecting my progress as an athlete (I do hurdles) because I keep getting injured due to the awkward landing and strain caused by this problem. I’m only 16. What can I do?

    1. Hey Natalie,

      It’s hard to say without seeing you in person, but it sounds like your hip is excessively internally rotated. This may also occur with hyper-extended knees.

      You can still do these same exercises to help with it.

      You can test if you have excessive hip internal rotation by doing this test:

      Normal is around 40 degrees (give or take). If you are closer to like 75>, then that could be an issue.

      It may also be Femoral Anteversion with your foot in a compensated forward position. (see below)


  24. Hey Mark, and thank you for the effort you do to help people! I’ve had knee valgus for some years now, and believe it comes from Flat feet & bad postures when younger, i was also a bit overweight. Im now 24, i workout 4-5 days a week with 1 legday included minimum, im no longer overweight havent been for the past 3-4 years. Is there any exercises i shouldnt do while having legday?

    1. Hi Michael,

      For sure! It can certainly predispose you to it (among many other things as well!)

      To treat your Achilles locally first, I would recommend doing PAIN-FREE heel drops.

      Slowly lower yourself down. You may need to use your other leg to help you go back to the starting position if hurts. Make sure there is no/minimal pain! Try to aim for 20-30 reps.


  25. Hi Mark

    Thanks for the exercises and information. How often would you recommend doing the exercises? Daily? And when would you likely to expect improvement?



    1. Hey Colleen,

      I would start Daily and see how you go for the next 4-6 weeks.

      You should see improvements almost straight away as you learn to engage the right muscles… but please understand it is going to take some time correct completely!


  26. Thank you for a very nice and informative article.
    I have struggled with jumpers knee (verified with ultrasound) and ankle and lower calf pain (not any imaging taken, but I`m sure it`s tendonitis) for over half a year. It came on really suddenly, as I did not do any strenuous activities in that period due to pain underneath both feet (flexor hallucis longus tendonitis verified with MRI). I do not have a severe case of knee valgus, but they tend to go slightly towards each other.
    The thing is that both the knee and ankle problem came after seeing a physiotherapist that strongly argues for an anterior pelvic tilt posture (see arguments here: You write that Anterior pelvic tilt is one of the causes of knee valgus. Now, my knees aren`t pointing more towards each other after changing to a more anterior tilt posture, but do you think the posture change may be the reason for the jumpers knee and ankle tendonitis?
    I have done a lot of hamstring exercises, in addition to many of the ones you describe here. But nothing seems to make it better. Just added the popliteus exercise, as my physiotherapist recommended it as well. But do you really believe this exercise can have such a huge impact on my problems?
    I`m desperate to get back into activities, and would love any advice as to which exercises might be the best to focus on!

    1. Hi Eva,

      When you change anything in your posture, it is likely that your static and dynamic posture will be affected (sometimes for the better, sometimes for the worse… it really depends.)

      You want to adopt a dynamic posture that allows you use the most optimal movement pattern your body can achieve.

      In regards to your knee, I would focus on the area of injury first (releases to patella tendon, stretch/release quadriceps, knee cap tracking, progressive isometric>eccentric>concentric loading of tendon etc etc. (Which I will assume the physio already did)

      If your feet are a major factor, you will need to get that assessed. For now, you can have a look at this post on flat feet. If you over pronate, it is likely you are overloading your big toe (which is the action of the Flexor Hallucis longus).

      With a pronounced Anterior pelvic tilt, it generally causes the body to become more quadriceps dominant which could play a role in overloading the patella tendon.

      Which activities did you want to get back into ?


      1. Thanks for your reply!
        I have been instructed in the popliteus excercies, as well as a lot of hamstring excercises.
        My flexibility in ankles and other muscles has always been very good, and I can be bent in any direction without feeiling pain. This is almost a problem, because I “pass” all the tests performed on me.
        I really would like to get back into running.

  27. Hello Mark
    I’ve had knock knees since I was born but I’m not sure if they are genetic because my father doesn’t have them but my mother does. I am a 16 year old boy and my gap is about 8cm. I was wondering if my condition could improve witg exercises or if I have it for life and any exercises won’t cosmetically change the way they look.

  28. Oh hi mark,
    In my case i can push my knees out by force and also my arches are pretty high,never really been overweight,i want to know if the knees should rotate in or out because my knees appear to be rotated outside more to me, i can have a perfect alignment for a while before i get tired and it goes back to knocked knees.i have really no problem with running or walking but whenever i put on a tight looking pant it looks really bad

    1. Hi Sultan,

      In knee valgus, your knees will be oriented towards the mid line of the body, however, the knee cap would be pointing outwards relative to the knee joint.


  29. Hi Mark,
    My knees bend inwards only when walking not while doing squats or any other exercises, as far as I remember I didn’t have this issue before but as I started to put weight on it worsened, so can this be fixed using your programme?

    1. Hi Selina,

      As you put on more weight than your body can naturally properly hold against gravity, your knees can start to collapse inwards.

      In conjunction with weight loss, strengthening your muscles should be able to help resolve this posture issue.


  30. Hi. I have had knee valgus for years and still do. I like to do cardio four days a week. Is it safe to do the elliptical? I have some knee pain after. Is there any kind of knee brace I can use just for working out to protect my knee? I have been doing a lot of the PT exercises that you have provided and some extra from previous PT sessions. It has helped but I still have a long way to go. Thanks for your article

    1. Hi Allyson,

      I would try avoid any exercises that definitely makes your symptoms worse.

      You might need to change or modify the exercise so that it does not reproduce your pain (during and after).

      Elliptical is generally less impact compared to treadmill running, however, you will still need to exercise caution.

      There are no specific knee valgus braces that I am aware of.


    1. Hi J,

      Thanks for your input.

      I agree with you. The patella is outwards relative to the femur. It’s orientation as a whole will be inwards due to the internal rotation of the femur.


  31. Hello Mark,
    I’m really appreciative of all the information and of the knowledge that you share. I have a question about knee valgus. My knees are wierd on the inner sides. They are just fat. They are touching and there’s a small distance between my ankles, aproximately 3 centemeters. I’ve started noticing this “inner knee fat” six or seven months ago(I’m 25). I haven’t had such a problem before.. Well, I must admit that it upsets me a bit. What would you recommend for me? Will cardio workout combined with exercises that you shared be enough for me to get rid of those fat knees?And do you think that I’m starting to have knee valgus?

    1. Hi Lily,

      Are your knees touching only because of the fat or is it because your knees are actually turning inwards?

      I haven’t seen “inner knee fat” before. Are you sure it is not swelling?


  32. hello mark, thank you for this post. my own case is that I have had knock knees since 2012 but between 2013 and 2015 I put books or pillows between my knees to force them apart while standing with my ankles still touching and the result which I started noticing last year is that I can now force my leg into a normal straight posture or slightly bowed posture while standing or walking although my walk is funny at times and immediately I release my leg muscles my leg returns to its former knock kneed posture. what could be the problem?

      1. Hi Mark, where to contact you personally. I have genu valgus since childhood and recently got operated in one knee. Distal femur osteotomy. Knee is weak now. And my legs still knock kneed. I am very upset. Can’t go through all that pain and healing process of years. I had a titanium place inside my femur for one whole year and one more surgery was done to remove it because it was restricting my knee from bending. Vigorous painful physiotherapy made me reach only 90 degree. And since plate is removed I can bend it full. Healed now. But knee is always swelled and knock knees still present. I also have flat feel and I get bad pain in ankles and feet base bones or joints whenever I walk or stand for more than 15mins. Wearing arch support but still painful. Please help me! I’m 28 now. Don’t wanna get arthritis 🙁

  33. Hello Mark,
    First of all thanku so much for this article.
    I am 27 yr old girl and realized at the age of 22 that i am having knee valgus. I have it somewhere genetically. I visited a doctor recently, he said we cannot change the valgus moreover the valgus will cause early chapping of my knees. Can I atleast improve this? I go to gym but it pains in knees whenever i do heavy cardio? Is it ok if i continue gyming? Will these exercises help improve the posture?

    1. Hi Ekta,

      If you have structural knee valgus, that is, genetically you are designed like that, then it can not be completely “corrected”.

      However, especially if it is causing some issues with your cardio, I find in most cases, you can still at least improve it.

      The exercises in the post are best for that.


  34. How do you tell if your knock knees are structural or a muscle tightness problem? I think I might have always had knock knees. I’ve just noticed it more now because I’m overweight. I have no pain in my knees ever however I do have pain in my ankle. I find that I’m hyperextended too and I can pull my knee in and up and out. If I do this my ankles are nearly together. However if I lie on my side and don’t pull any muscles my ankles touch, does this mean it’s not structural?

    1. Hi Lauren,

      If you can straighten the legs out into a more neutral position by activating the right muscles, then it is not structural.

      Structural knock knees means that the bones/joints are oriented that particular way. So – it doesn’t really matter what you do to the muscles, the bones/joints will remain as they are.


  35. I always get made fun of at school because of the way I walk caused by my knock knees. I always try and catch the very early bus everyday to avoid humiliation. I hate walking in public and I turn around every second to make sure no one is behind me to mock me. I don’t go out with my friends anymore because I feel embarrassed. I’ve tried exercises but I can’t stick with them because I run out of breath easily. I don’t know what to do anymore I’m tired of crying about it, I wish I had straight legs :((((. Please it’s summer holidays and I have 4 weeks left til school starts, how can I straighten my legs fast? I’m 15 year old girl,tall and skinny.

    1. Hey Lucy,

      Try not to be discouraged. People only make fun of other people because they have their own insecurities about themselves. Be strong 🙂

      Were you born with knock knees? Or has it developed over some time now?


      1. I’m not sure if I was born with it but I know I had it when I was younger 🙁 . And thanks for replying 😁.

        1. Hi Lucy,
          I don’t have any advice for you as far as how to correct your walk but I do have advice about the teasing. When I was in elementary school my mom picked me up from school in tears. I always thought my walk was fine. But that day a boy pointed out it was different and that I walked like I had a stick up my butt… This stuck with me for the rest of my life. It was the beginning of my one and only insecurity. Don’t let it define you. Don’t let it limit you. The older I got, the more I realized that I was more worried about it than anyone else. I had boyfriend who wanted me to wear these cute shorts and dresses that were above the knee and I wasn’t having it. Then I realized that he didn’t care how I walked. It’s hard at times, I completely understand. But just know that it’s what makes you YOU. I have such a strong personality I tell people all the time that my knocked knees give me a level of humility, it humbles me. It makes me aware and sensitive to the feelings of others, it has given me compassion and empathy beyond measure. My knock knees have helped me become an amazing, kind, and nurturing woman. there are days that I would love to wear something without first looking at my knees, so when I turned 38 in August, on my birthday I wore the cutest rompers and SLAYED it, knock knees and all. I decided I wasn’t going to let everyone’s opinion of something I can’t change keep me from being me. You’re young and have a lot more crap to deal with, don’t let something as insignificant as the way you walk deter you…. Remember, there are paraplegics and amputees that would give anything just to be ABLE to walk, it could ALWAYS be worse so come to terms with it and then OWN IT! Good luck, sweet heart.

    2. Hi Lucy! Im 18 years old and have only just discovered thats not only me who has this, its great that you’ve found out so young. Try the simple ones first in sitting chair position, then work your way up, just keep trying 🙂
      When i was in primary school i was a district runner, ballet dancer and gymnast, i always sat in weird positions, during compitions i would get bullied for my posture and “bird legs”, the way the flail around when i run seemed to be the most common, it became so bad i stopped competing. I still hold those comments to heart but instead of letting them hurt me, i use them to motivate myself to get better x
      (also people in all school situations are A holes and they really determine nothing in your life)

  36. Hi Mark,

    I’d like to first congratulate you on creating the best article post i have seen with regards to the issue.

    I think video would be a great step for you, in the eyes of a reader, I would also like to see some time frames till mending will begining so I can get on with my life (I realise this will be dependant on the serverity of the issue, but if you coukd do what you can id be hugely grateful).

    Last thing if you could give some technical names of the muscles that need loosening and muscles that need strengthening so I can find my own exercise to work into my routine.

    This post is already one of the best I’ve have ever seen and you have gained a follower. The thing I mentioned above would really bring it all to the next level for me and many others.

    Thanks again,
    Trent Williams.

    1. Hey Trent,

      Videos are definitely on the to-do list! And thank you so much for the feed back!

      Main muscles that require loosening are your:

      – Tensor fascia lata
      – Adductor group (Magnus, longus, brevis etc)

      – Biceps femoris

      – Gastrocnemius
      – Soleus

      Main muscles for strengthening are your

      – Gluteal group (Maximus, medius, minimus)

      Tibial internal rotation:
      – Popliteus

      Foot arch
      – Tibialis posterior
      – Tibialis anterior
      – Flexor hallucis long
      – Flexor digitorum

      Hope this helps!


  37. Hello Mark,
    First of all thanku so much for this article.
    I am 27 yr old girl and realized at the age of 22 that i am having knee valgus. I have it somewhere genetically. I visited a doctor recently, he said we cannot change the valgus moreover the valgus will cause early chapping of my knees. Can I atleast improve this? I go to gym but it pains in knees whenever i do heavy cardio? Is it ok if i continue gyming? Will these exercises help improve the posture?

  38. Hey Mark,

    I am 27yrs girl and realized I have a knock knee a few months back. I feel very embarrassed of my body structure, walk now. I started doing few exercises but when the doctor said it is not reversible, I was demotivated and stopped doing these exercises regularly, I do gym 3/4 times a week though. And now when I read some comments in your article which says they have seen the results make me feel glad and motivate to try all this again.
    Thank you for the article.
    Can you tell me: 1. does knock knee may also cause bad body posture while sitting i.e. crouched shoulders etc. I recently observed that I am not sitting in proper posture. I was worried because both are related to bones. 2. I understand knock knee is not reversible but can it show little improvement if I exercise daily? I have an 11cm gap in my ankles.

    1. Hi Tulip,

      If you were born with knock knees, this likely means that your issue is structural. There may be some limitation to how far the exercises will get you, however, remember that there is always something we can improve on.

      Having knock knee can definitely cause other postural issues further up the body chain.


      1. Okay.. I am doing other gym activities and legs one day now. Should I do leg exercises for knock knee daily ? How many set and repetition ?
        Also I read about yoga. What will more useful for knockknee yoga or these exercises?
        And lastly how long it might take to show some improvements? (I know it depends on cases, but still, as I said I have 11cm gap in feet)

        1. Hi Tulip,

          You can do these exercises everyday.

          Yoga is a great form of exercise, however, it may not be specific for addressing knock knees.


      2. And I am not sure about my how n when knock knee developed in me. But I guess it developed when I was 15-16yeas old. I can be wrong. Is it possible to develop knock knee in this age?

  39. Hello Mark
    Is there any video footage of these exercises? The explanations are clear, but I would like to be able t help a friend and if I could direct her to a good and informative link that you might have made, I think it would be easier for her to engage with the exercises frequently – just wondering
    Your website is a real find -thank you!

  40. hi mark
    I found that I have knees valgus , but before I discover it I join a GYM and during it I felt that I can’t move my legs up and down , my hip is pain lots , like something hold my hip joint , so what do you think I have to do ? , ps : its getting bad day after day

  41. Hey Mark.

    Thanks a lot for this article indeed.
    Two months ago, I started suspecting that my knees are tilted inwards. I visited an Orthopedician today and he confirmed it.

    I started Googling about how to fix it, because I am feeling really bad. I have been dieting and exercising for 9 years now to look good, but I still ended up with a knee deformity.

    Anyways, I wanted to ask how many times per week you recommend that I do these exercises?

    Thanks again.

    1. Hey Jake,

      Both are very good exercises to engage the hip abductors.

      I like to do both!

      However – with the wall slides, I like it as it is engaging hip extension (via hamstring/glute max) whilst hitting glute medius at the same time.

      Since movement rarely occurs in isolation (esp. with walking, squatting, standing etc), it is a good one to do.


  42. Hi Mark,

    I came across your website while looking up the Dowager hump, which I have. Since then, I have read several of your articles. You mention the use of a massage ball in most of them. However, I do not have one. In this case, what else can I do to release my muscles instead?

    1. Hi Vrinda,

      Any ball of similar size will do, But, a lacrosse massage ball seems to have the right amount of firmness to help release the muscles without hurting too much.


  43. Hi Mark,
    I suspect that my son is suffering from Knee Valgus. We have visited many doctors but no one is able to see the abnormality in his gait. I am worried that he might end it up as a permanent issue. He is only 2 yrs old and I want to correct it asap. We are from India and would like your advice. Please suggest

    1. Hi Amrita,

      At what age did your son start to walk?

      Also – did he crawl before he walked?

      Many toddlers will grow out of their knee valgus/flat feet once their walking muscles are stronger (providing that it is not a structural abnormality).



  44. Hey mark,
    I came to your site before to see if I could correct ATP, and after a few months I did see a good result. I had no idea what knocked knees were until a few days ago when I noticed that I couldn’t tough my ankles together. My immediate response was to see if you made a page to correct it! I’m glad I found this, and I’m starting right now!

  45. Hi Mark. I have Knees Valgus and I want to fix it. Do I have to exercise everyday? How many days by week and how many times by day do I have to exercise?


      1. Hi Mark,
        How long should it take for someone who has moderate – severe knee vulgis to see differences if they do these exercises once a day?

        1. Hey there Delila,

          If you do not have any tightness, you can actually correct it straight away.

          Holding it in that position throughout the day with your daily activities is another story.

          If you have quite a bit of tightness, it may take more than 6 weeks to even start to really loosen them up to allow you to regain a neutral knee position.


  46. Have had an operation on it for dislocation and it swells when I do squats and also have knee valgus so will these exercises make my knee better

    1. Hi Barbara,

      Providing that your bones are not structurally causing your knee valgus, then these exercises will definitely help you out.

      If you are squatting and it swelling up, you might want to cut back until you fix your underlying issues with your alignment first.

      Remember – try to keep your hip, knee and ankles aligned with each other.


  47. I’ve been doing these exercises for only 4 weeks and I can ALREADY see the difference!

    Just wanted to let you know…. YOU ARE A LEGENDDDDD

    1. Hi Jack,

      Not that I am aware of!

      If anything, many of the exercises would help with an Anterior Pelvic tilt.

      Anterior pelvic tilt is one of the causes of knee valgus. So by correcting knee valgus, you may indirectly help correct the pelvic tilt.


    1. Hi Joy,

      Very common question! But to truthfully give you an answer…. It really depends!

      There are some people who just need to be more aware of their body and activate certain muscles to correct it. These people will see results immediately.

      Whereas others may have very tight and/or weak muscles that need to be trained over time (eg. >6 weeks) to see results.


  48. This is a great article! Please could you clarify whether these exercises apply to people who are not knock kneed when standing but whose knees only cave in on a squat? If anything, I am slightly bow legged but my knees naturally want to go together when I squat. Thank you!

    1. Hi Adele,

      Most definitely you can do these exercises if your knees cave inwards during a squat.

      I would try to do exercises that target the same muscles …. but in the exact position in your squat when your knees start to cave in.

      For example, you can do crab walks like this guy. But try to do it in a deeper squat position.


  49. Hi Mark,
    Thank you very much for the article, I’m going to try this today at the gym. For me, one knee caves inward when I bend it…the other is straight. I even have trouble doing leg extensions with that knee, so in an effort to “stretch” my knee back into proper alignment, I have been using a stretch band around my ankle that pulls inward (while focusing on keeping my knee in line with my hip). It seems to help align my leg bones better. What are your thoughts on doing leg extensions this way. Should I use a foam roller (above and below the knee) on the outside or inside of my leg, or both, prior to doing this exercise?

    1. Hi Andre,

      Are you saying when you do a squat, you feel that one of your knees caves inwards? If so – I would first check to see if you are shifting to one side in that squat.

      Stretch band between the legs are great for cue the knees to drive out (via glute activation). You can do them with extensions , but try to combine it with some sort of weight bearing exercise (lunge, squat etc)

      You can focus on foam roller the groin/adductor group and see how that goes to begin with.

      Feel free to post a picture if it illustrates your problem clearer.


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